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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was Lenin?
Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks. This communist party overthrew the Provisional Government in Russia in October 1917.
Why did the Communists overthrow the Tsar and the Russian Royal family?
The peasants lived in appalling conditions while the ruling class lived a life of luxury.
Why was there a struggle for power between Trotsky and Stalin after Lenin died?
Trotsky believed the revolution must be spread throughout the world to ensure Russia's safety in the future. Stalin believed Russia should build up her defenses and shut out the rest of the world.
What ideals were the basis of the Bolshevik's revolution?
Equality and freedom for all, based on the ideas of Karl Marx.
How did Stalin gain control of the country?
Stalin built up support networks and undermined Trotsky. In 1927 Trotsky was forced out of the country. Later he was sentenced to permanent exile.
Why did Stalin blame Trotsky for any problems the country suffered after he was exiled?
Stalin used Trotsky as a scapegoat and argued that he was working with the enemies of the Soviet Union to overthrow the government. This ensured he and his government were not blamed for the problems.
In what ways was Stalin inconsistent as a ruler?
He opposed the industrialisation of Russia when Trotsky was in power and immediately after Trotsky was exiled began a program to industrialise the country.
What were the Five Year plans?
These plans set targets for Russia's industry. They were extremely unpopular and the targets were unrealistic.
What tools did Stalin use to maintain his rule?
He crushed any opposition by execution or exile. He frequently reinvented history and used propaganda to emphasise his control over Soviet life.
What is a 'show trial'?
A 'show trial' was a staged trial in which people confessed to crimes they had not committed. Those who were on trial were usually executed. The trials created an climate of fear in Soviet society.
Why did Stalin sign a treaty with Hitler in 1939?
He had tried to join an alliance against Hitler in 1934 by joining the League of Nations but was unsuccessful.
What happened at the Tehran conference in 1943?
Germany invaded Russia in 1941 and Stalin switched sides to join an alliance with America and Britain.
Who was Eric Arthur Blair?
George Orwell. He changed his name in the late 1920's. It is said he did this to protect his family because his ideas were not popular with the British government at the time.
What are some other works by George Orwell?
1984, Down and Out in Paris and London, Burmese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, The Road to Wigan Pier, A Homage to Catalina.
What did George Orwell do doing WW2?
He joined the Home Guard and worked for the BBC, broadcasting from Malaysia.
Why did Orwell resign from the Indian Imperial Police Force in 1922?
He was unhappy with the way in which the British ruled India.
In what ways was Orwell a socialist?
He had a deep concern for those who were worst off in society - the poor, diseased and lower classes.
Why did Orwell become increasingly anti-Communist, even though he remained a socialist?
He believed the communists were totalitarian in the way they implemented socialism. Totalitarianism describes political systems where the state controls every aspect of public and private life.
Who were the Bolsheviks?
A Communist faction of the Marxist Russian Democratic Socialist Labour Party who split form the party because they supported a central organising committee, closed membership of the party and a military style rule.
What is the difference between Socialism and Communism?
Socialist believed that wealth and power should be shared equally and opposed the capitalist system which concentrated wealth and ownership in a small ruling class. Communism is a form of socialism that supports a classless society and collective ownership of the country's resources.