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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

How much does concrete weigh per Cubic Foot?

-150 lbs

How much does 1 bag of cement weight?

- ~94 lbs

What must you ensure your form is before you pour your concrete?




What is a slab form constructed out of?

- 2x wood

How far appart should stakes be placed on a slab form?

-2 to 4 feet

What are the 6 components of a continuous wall form?




-Tie wire



What type of nails should be used when making a form?

-Form Nails

What should be applied to a form to aid in the removal of the form?

-Oil or oil alternative such as asphalt paint, Varnish, or linseed oil.

What is a vapor barrier and what does it do?

-Any number of materials placed over drying concrete to prevent the unwanted loss or gain of water.

In what ways is concrete strong and weak?

-Strong in compression

-Weak in tension

In what ways is rebar strong and weak?

-Strong in tension and sheer strength

-weak in compression

Why is rebar added to concrete?

-To help the concrete to have better tensile strength and prevent cracking under pressure.

How many sizes does rebar come in?

- 11

How much does the diameter of a piece of rebar increase by moving up one number?

-1/8th of an inch

What is the diameter of a piece of rebar numbered 11?

-11/8 inches or 1 3/8 inches

How should rebar be joined together in a form?

-Overlapping, either vertically or horizontally, with offset joints to stagger weak points.

-Never end to end

What are the 4 ways to cut rebar?

-Rebar cutting set

-Reciprocating saw


-Bolt Cutters

-Knife hand

How much concrete should be placed around each piece of rebar?

-1 1/2 to 3 inches depending on the size of rebar and what the blueprints call for.

How far appart should rebar supports be placed?

-5 to 6 feet appart

What is used to secure the supports to the rebar?

-18 guage wire

In what two ways can you buy wire mesh?

-In sheets or rolls

What is the primary purpose of wire mesh in concrete?

-To control shrinkage and contraction while providing reinforcement

What is used to cut wire mesh?

-Bolt cutters

How far should sliced wire mesh be overlapped?

-One square plus 2 inches

What are some advantages to concrete as a building material?



-Can be cast into almost any desired shape

-Produces lasting structures

-Will support almost any weight if placed correctly

-High compressive strength

-Low maintenance

What are some disadvantages of concrete?

-Low in tensile strength unsupported

-Contracts and expands

-It is porous to a degree

-What are the ingredients of Concrete?


-Portland cement


What are the two aggregates added to cement to make concrete?

-Sand (Fine aggregate)

-Gravel (Course aggregate)

How many types of cement are there?


What are the main types of cement?

-Type 1: Normal Cement

-Type 2: Modified Cement

-Type 3: High Early Cement

-Type 4: Low Heat Cement

-Type 5: Sulfate Resistant Cement

What is Type 1: Normal Cement used for? What is it's cure time?

-General purpose non-critical construction

-Ex: Paving, sidewalks, buildings, and bridges

-Cures in about 28 days

What is Type 2: Modified Cement used for? What is it's cure time?

-Typically used in drainage structures with higher than normal sulfate levels

-Cures in about 45 days

What is Type 3: High Early Cement used for? What is it's cure time?

-Typically used in cold environments.

Permits fast form removal

-Cure time is usually 7 days or less

What is Type 4: Low Heat Cement used for? What is it's cure time?

-Used in very large structures where the heat of curing could damage the structure

- Ex: Dams

-Cures in about 90 days

What is Type 5: Sulfate Resistant Cement used for? What is it's cure time?

-Used where soil or ground contacting concrete has a high sulfate content. Resists sulfate degradation.

-Cures in about 60 days.

What percentage of concrete is aggregates?

-66 to 78 percent of concrete volume

How are sieves measured?

-Larger sieves are given an inch designation based on the size of the square holes

-Smaller sieves are given a number based on the number of square holes per linear inch.

What number sieve will sand pass through?

- Number 4

Why are aggregates added to cement?

-To increase strength

-To minimize shrinkage

-To cut down on cost

Where can aggregates be found?


-Streams and riverbanks-Valleys or Alluvial fans

riverbanks-Valleys or Alluvial fans

riverbanks-Valleys or Alluvial fans

-Valleys or Alluvial fans

What are the desired properties of Aggregates?

-Partially rounded



-Well graded

-Free of organics

What is Air Entrained Concrete?

-It is concrete with tiny, well distributed, completely seperated air bubbles.

Why is Air Entrained Concrete used?

-To produce concrete that is resistant to freezing and thawing erosion as well as chemicals used for frost removal.

How much water does concrete contain?

-15 to 20 percent.

How much is the strength of concrete degraded when using salt water?

-10 to 30 percent

What are the proportions for concrete?

-One part cement

-Two parts sand

-Three parts gravel

What are the two ways to mix concrete?

-By hand

-With a mixer

What is the capacity of the mixing machines we use?

-12.5 cu. ft.

What is the sequence for mixing concrete?

-Add gravel first with a small amount of water

-Add sand second

-Add cement third

-Add water slowly and as needed to obtain desired consistency.

What is a slump test?

-A test used to measure the consistency of the proportions of a concrete mixture

How many times do you pack the concrete in a slump test?

-25 times per layer (per 3rd of the form)

-75 times total

What is the sequence for hand mixing concrete?

-Add 1/2 Sand first

-Add cement over sand

-Add remaining sand over cement

-Blend together

-Once done blending, level off and add gravel

-Make trough in center and add water to trough

-Mix until water is absorbed

-Add water as needed and mix until mix has a uniform consistency

What is the capacity of a mixing truck?

-7-12 cubic yards

How do we minimize concrete segregation?

-Place, never throw, concrete

-Do not allow concrete to fall more than 3 feet

-Place concrete in 6 to 12 inch lifts

What is consolidation?

-Vibration or agitation of concrete

-Helps to achieve maximum density for concrete

-Prevents rock pockets and air bubbles

How is a vibrator applied to concrete?

-Vertically never horizontally

-In 18 inch intervals

How long should Non-Air Entrained Concrete be vibrated?

-10-15 sec

How long should Air-Entrained concrete be vibrated?

-5 to 10 sec

What are some methods of hand consolidation?



-Puddling sticks

What is screeding?

-Using a board, mechanical screed, or other strong, straight material to level off the surface of the concrete to the desired height.

How do you use a screed?

-In a sawing motion, moving forward very slowly.

What are the types of concrete finishes?

-No finish

-Floated finish

-Broom/Wire brush finish

-Trowel finish

When do you float the surface of concrete?

-After screeding to smooth the top of the concrete

When do you edge concrete?

-Immediately after floating while still wet

When do you trowel concrete?

-After concrete has no water/pooling at its surface and is semi hard.

-Delay as long as possible without letting concrete harden too much.

What are the 3 types of concrete joints?




What is the purpose of an isolation joint?

-To isolate two pieces of concrete so expansion and contraction do not crack or adversely effect eachother.

-Allows for movement.

What is the purpose of a control joint?

- It is a cut in the concrete to create a weak point to control and/or stop cracks.

-minimum 1/4 inch

What is a construction joint?

-A keyed or doweled joint used to allow some load transfer between two pieces of concrete that were cast at different times.

7 Types of moisture barriers

-Burlap cloth



-Curing compounds

-Waterproof paper


-Moist earth