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55 Cards in this Set

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Nonverbal Communication
"…all nonverbal actions that have
symbolic meaning.”

1) Regularly used to send messages

2) Typically interpret them as intentional
3) Usually have a recognized, agreed-upon interpretation
What is the relationship between
verbal and non-verbal behavior?
1) reinforce,
2) substitute for,
or 3) contradict verbal behaviors
Non-verbal CODES
1) gestures
2) eye contact
3) facial expression
4) paralanaguage (**p.277)
5) silence
chronemics
the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for the communication process.
Monochronic Time
means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise, small units. Under this system time is scheduled, arranged and managed.
Polychronic Time
system where several things can be done at once, and a more fluid approach is taken to scheduling time. Unlike Americans and most northern and western European cultures, Latin American and Arabic cultures use the polychronic system of time.
Proxemics
the study of measurable distances between people as they interact.

4 types: intimate, personal, social, & public

their use is a function of gender,
age ethnicity context and topic (e.g. contact cultures vs. noncontact cultures)
Intimate Distance (Proxemics)
for embracing, touching or whispering

Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm)
Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm)
Personal Distance (Proxemics)
for interactions among good friends or family members

Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm)
Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 120 cm)
Social Distance (Proxemics)
for interactions among acquaintances

Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m)
Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m)
Public Distance (Proxemics)
used for public speaking

Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m)
Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.
Functions of non-verbals
1. Regulate interaction
2. Express/regulate intimacy
3. Social control
4. Deception
Deception (Nonverbals)
some of its motivations include:
a) to save face
b) to guide social interaction
c) to avoid tension or conflict
d) to affect interpersonal relationships
e) to achieve interpersonal power
Cultural Space
The particular configuration of the communication that constructs meanings of various places (and our identities).

not just a particular location
that has culturally constructed meanings, it can also be a metaphorical place from which we communicate (3).
Examples of Cultural Space
(1) Home > neighborhood > Regionalism
(2) Travel & global flows
(3) Internet & cyberspace
Types of people in motion
1) (in)voluntary & time length
-sojourner, immigrant, refugee

2)Migrant-host relationship
(outcomes of (im)migrant transition)
Cultural adaptation
long-term process of adjusting & finally feeling comfortable in a new environment
>> individual traits: age gender
Anxiety & uncertainty management model (Gudykunst, 1995) [Social Scientific models]
>> reducing uncertainty
>> explanatory & predictive uncertainty
The integrative model (Kim, 1977, 2001) [Social Scientific models]
sociology + communication + psychology
U-Curve (Lysgaard)
A model designed to describe the emotional adjustment
process of cross-cultural sojourns over time. The 'U' shape suggests sojourner’s emotional well-being begins
positively, dips to a negative state, and eventually returns
to positive levels of satisfaction.
phenomenological process
the study of conscious experience

(look up)
The transition model (Social Scientific models)
(flight vs. fight)
Critical approach
the role of context
Factors influencing identity
1) own identity
2) desire to interact w/ host society
3) access to political processes
Blurring of lines (due to increasing global flow of people in multiple directions)
1) liminality
2) transnationalism
3) multicultural identity
Liminality
a psychological, neurological, or metaphysical subjective state, conscious or unconscious, of being on the "threshold" of or between two different existential planes
Transnationalism
is a social movement grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people and the loosening of boundaries between countries.
Multicultural Identity
A sense of in-betweenness that develops as a result of frequent or multiple cultural border crossings.
Pop culture
plays an important role in the construction, maintenance, and experience of culture, especially in intercultural interactions.

Def: Commercial culture based on popular taste
4 Characteristics of Pop Culture
1) it’s produced by culture industries
2) it differs from folk culture
3) it’s everywhere
4) it fills a social function
ICC Definition of Pop Culture
ever-present cultural products designed for profitable consumption (e.g. film, books, music, books, magazines, advertisements)

Authenticity maybe less important than the mixing and borrowing from other cultures to produce products for commercialization
U.S. Popular Culture & Power
1) Standards of beauty
2) Standards of relationships
3) International trade
Cultural Imperialism
the interrelatedness of issues of ethnicity, culture, and nationalism in the context of economics, technology, and capitalism.
Reasons for resisting pop culture:
1) constructs identities negatively
2) portrayals of social groups
-reinforces stereotypes (both main stream & non-main stream)
3) counter the liberal-capitalism mode of profit culture producers rely on
Benefits & costs approach (Analyzing Intercultural relationships)
1) Psychological (satisfaction)
2) Social (gain knowledge & status)
3) Legal & economic implications?
Roles & obligations approach (Analyzing Intercultural relationships)
1) Individual expectations?
2) Group/social expectations?
Stage/process approach (Analyzing Intercultural relationships)
Initiation –maintenance–termination
Forming relationships is a function of
1) individual preference
2) opportunities
-spaces where connection can emerge & be sustained
3) social mores & institutional structure
- concern for neg. evaluation & neg. consequences
- regulated through IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT means
Chapter 10 Graphs
3,5
Behavioral approach looked at following factors to understand “healthy” romantic/marital relationships
- Openness
- Assurances
- Shared tasks
- (Social) networks
Nonverbals (Romantic/marital Relationships)
John Gottman (@ Univ. of Washington), looks at marital interaction (physiology & perception) to predict (<90% accuracy) what is going to happen to a relationship over accuracy) what is going to happen to a relationship over a three-year period
-paralanguage
Intercultural Marriages (Dugan Romano (1997) identified 4 styles
adopted by intercultural couples)
1. Submission style
2. Compromise style
3. Obliteration style
4. Consensus style
Romano suggest serious couples to prepare by (Intercultural Marriage)
1. Living together
2. Spending extended time with the other’s family
3. Learning the partner's language
4. Studying the religion
5. Learning the cuisine
6. Study legal issues:
- Children’s citizenship
- Finances & taxation
- Ownership of property
- Women’s rights Divorce
Non-conventional & Non-normative relationships
1) Relationships initiated by individuals, but they take on various functions needed to sustain the health & flourishing of individuals at the society level.

2)Various institutional support is to be given or left for individuals in non-normative relationships to fend for themselves?
Conflict
a perceived or real incompatibility of goals, values, expectations, process, or outcomes between two or more
interdependent individuals or groups.
Social science approach of conflict
Cultural differences:
1. cause conflict
2. Influence the management of conflict
Interpretive & Critical approach of conflict
Focuses on intergroup relationships &:
1) Cultural element
2) Historical element
3) Structural element
...as primary sources of conflict.
Chapter 11 Graphs
4,9,10
Intercultural conflict:
“perceived or actual incompatibility of values, norms, processes, or goals between a minimum of two cultural parties over content, identity, relational,
and procedural issues” (Ting-Toomey, 1999 194)
Conflict Management Styles
1) Individualism and Collectivism
2) Power Distance
3) Direct vs. Indirect
Communication Style
4) Identity & Context
5) Facework and
Face-Negotiation Theory
Face Negotiation Theory (how facework influences conflict
styles)
Conflict management styles for collectivist cultures vary according to in-group vs. out-group.
(Ting-Toomey, 2005)
Facework
is identity management that uses either low-context or high-context verbal and nonverbal messages to a) maintain face b) defend face or c) promote and honor someone else’s face in conflict negotiation situations. It is used strategically to defuse or aggravate a conflict & mend a broken relationship by way of apologies and third-party help (Ting-Toomey, 1994).
Functional Approach [Ting-Toomey & Oetzel (2002)]
a) those withindependent self-construal showed greater
concern for self-face(protective concern for one’s own self-image) and tended to use more self-defensive controlling/dominating modes and competitive styles.

In contrast b) those with
interdependent selfconstrual who are more interdependent self-construal who are more concerned about other-face(the concern for the other party’s image) in addition to one’s own, use more a collaborative/integrative conflict mode and compromising style.
Latino/Americans Conflict Styles
1) Tactfulness and consideration of others’ feelings are considered to be important norms in interpersonal confrontation situation.

2)“Whereas members of the dominant culture of the U.S. are taught to value openness, frankness, and directness, the traditional Mexican-American approach requires the use of much diplomacy and tact when communicating with another individual.

3) Concern and respect for the feelings of others dictate that a screen be provided behind which an individual may preserve dignity.” (Locke, 1992)
African American Conflict Style
1) different content and engagement process from European Americans (Kochman, 1981)

2) African Americans tend to prefer emotionally expressive self-face assertion modes, while European Americans often prefer logically inductive self-face defensive modes

3)“Black mode” of conflict: “high keyed: animated Black mode of conflict high keyed: animated, interpersonal, and confrontational”

4) “White mode” of conflict: “low-keyed: dispassionate impersonal and nonchallenging."