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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a safe amount of blood to take from an animal?
Blood is about 10% body weight in kg. It is safe to take 1% of that
What are the techniques for filling tubes?
clean venipuncture - no tissue
largest vein possible
CBC and biochemical profile needs 5-6 mL of blood
What are possible causes for causes hemolysis from blood collecting?
forcing blood into tube
using smaller than a 20g needle
vacuum tubes
Why is important to fill to the line on the tube
to keep the ratio of blood to anticoagulant in balance

inadequate filing of purple top tube will lead to too much EDTA
What is the order of draw for filling tubes?
What does the blue tube top have and what is it used for?

panel for individual factor testing
What does the red tube top have and what is it used for?
serum tube

Biochem profile
What does the green tube top have and what is it used for?

plasma profile
What does the purple tube top have and what is it used for?

chelates Ca

used for CBC, PCV, blood film and cell differentiation
What does the gray tube top have and what is it used for?
sodium fluoride

glucose measurement and lactate measurement

inhibits glcolysis
How many times should you invert a tube for proper mixing?
8 -10 times
Which tube is used for the CBC?
Purple top (EDTA)
Which of the following tubes is most commonly used for the biochemical profile?
Red top (clot tube no additive)
Which of the type is used for plasma biochemical profile?
Green top heparin

Also use heparin for blood gas
What are proper sample handling procedures for the CBC?
analyze in an hour

make a film and refrigerate tube
What is the protocol for blood for serum biochemical profile?
use a fasted sample
allow clot for 30 minutes
remove serum
refrigerate harvested serum until analyzed
freeze if you can't analyze in 24 hours
What increases mean cell hemoglobin?
Extreme leukocytosis
Heinz bodies
What are the possible reasons for having decreased mean cell hemoglobin concentration?
Severe iron deficiency
Regenerative anemia with increased reticulocytes
How do you calculated reticulocytes?
Percentage of reticulocytes times RBC count = absolute retic
Why is it unlikely for horses and cows to usual produce reticulocytes in the blood?
They RBCs mature in the bone marrow
How do you interpret 0 - 10,000 ul of reticulocytes in dogs?
Non-regenerative anemia
How do you interpret 10,000 - 60,000 ul of reticulocytes in dogs?
Poorly regenerative anemia
How do you interpret 60,000 - 200,000 ul of reticulocytes in dogs?
mild to moderate regeneration
How do you interpret greater than 200,000 ul of reticulocytes in dogs?
maximum regeneration
How long does it take reticulocytes to mature in dogs?
24 - 48 hours from release to maturation
If you see aggregate retics and punctate retics, which are counted in a reticulocyte count?
Aggregate retics
When do you see aggregated reticulocytes? Punctated?
About 12 hours

10-12 days
What is an example of what an abnormal leukogram can indicate?
The presence of inflammation

See numeric data and morphologic abnormalities
What is this?
A monocyte
What is this?
Mature Segmented neutrophil
What is this?
What is this?
Band Neutrophil
What is this?
What is this?
Nucleated RBC
What is this?
Howell-Jolly Body

nuclear remnants in circulated RBCs
What is this?
What is this?
Reactive Lymphocyte
What is this?
Mature Monocyte
What is this?
What are these?
What are the common blood leukocytes?
Neutrophils - phagocytic and killing cells

Band neutrophils - immature neutrophils released when inflammation is present

Metamyelocytes - less common but seen during profound inflammation

Important in horses
What are examples of lymphocyte subpopulations?
B - cells = hummoral immunity
T - cells = CMI
Large granular lymphocytes - NK cells
Reactive lymphocytes
Plasma cells
What are the functions of monocytes?
Antigen presentation to T lymphocytes
Iron storage and recycling
Cytokine production
What are the functions of eosinophils?
Modulate inflammatory response
Defense agains helminth parasites
Seen in allergic disease - mast cells
What are basophils?
Contain heparin
And numerous proteins

Increased concentration of basophils is associated with parasitic infections
What is packed cell volume?
The percentage of whole blood composed of erythrocytes

Measured after centrifugation
What are the three layers of the microhematocrit tube after it has been spun?
Buffy coat
What is composed of the buffy coat?
What does plasma color indicate?
Small animals should have clear and colorless plasma layer

Yellow pigmentation is suggestive of icterus

Large animals plasma maybe pale yellow

White/pink and opague = lipemia either do to chylomicrons with postprandial collection or high cholesterol (abnormal lipid metabolism)

Red = free hb due to hemolysis
If PCV isn't decrease it is likely in vitro
What is red plasma associated with?
Intravascular hemolysis if PCV is decreased
What is yellow plasma associated with?
Icterus in large and small animals; maybe normal in large animals
What does a blood film help you do?
Get a differential cell count and calculated absolute concentrations

Assess morphology
How do you prepare a blood film?
Push technique with 2 clean slides
Stabilize bottom slide
Hold push slide at a 45 or 60 degree angle
Push smoothly and quickly
Dry rapidly
What are the three zones of a blood film?
Counting area
Feather edge
What can be seen in the body zone of a blood film?

do not look at cell morphology here
What can be seen in the counting area zone of a blood film?
Cell morphology
Differential count
Platelet estimation
What can be seen in the feathered edge area of a blood film?
Platelet clumps
Big cells

Do not look at cell morphology here
Why must one invert the purple top tube before making a blood film or before machine analysis?
Because the rocker mixes inadequately
What is a torocyte?
an artifact of drying
Fill in these WBCs
Identify these WBCs
What do you expect with less than 500 semented neutrophils per microliter?
Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections
What do you see with inflammation?
Increased neutrophil production

Lps and inflammatory mediators
G-CSF is key in stimulation of granulopoiesis, maturation of precursors and mobilization from bone marrow
What is a left shift?
Increased concentration of immature neutrophils (bands usually)

Occurs with normal neutrophil, neutrophilia or neutropenia

If with neutropenia = more sever inflammatory response

If bands are greater than mature neutrophils = degererate left shift

See increases of G-CSF
What is orderly maturation?
Concentration of each cell increases with the degree of maturity
What is disorderly maturation?
Usually a neoplastic process
Very severe consumption
What is leukemia?
Neoplastic cells in blood or bone marrow- associated hematologic abnormalities

Concentration of neoplastic cells variable non detectable so greater than 500,000 per microliter
What is a lymphoproliferative disorder?
Neoplasm if lymphocytes and plasma cells

more common in vet med
What is myeloproliferative disorder?
Neoplasm arising from bone marrow stem cells
What are some examples of lymphoproliferative disorders?
Lymphoma/sarcoma - confined to tissues and seen in older animals

Lymphocytic leukemia - neoplasia in marrow and or blood (acute and chronic) seen in younger animals

Multiple myeloma - plasma cells present in bone marrow, rapidly fatal and seen in older dogs
What are the 5 main types of Myeloid Leukemias?
1) Red cell leukemia - acute erythroid leukemia a) myeloblast and rubriblasts b) erythroid predominance

-polycythemia vera - chronic mature cells found

2) Netrophils = granulocytic leukemia
3) Monocytes = monocytic leukemia
4) Neutrophils and Monocytes =

Megakaryocytic leukemia = +/- osteosclerosis and
What are characteristics of toxic changes for neutrophils?
Usually indicates inflammation

See accelerated production

Persistence of ribosomes and RER
See diffuse increased basophilia of cytoplasm
Presence of Dohle bodies (aggregates)

Cytoplastic vacuolation - intense localized/systemic infection; sterile inflammation and drug toxicity

Seen in acute pancreatitis
Identify these Neutrophils
What is neutrophil hypersegmentation?
Usually an unimportant finding

Neutrophils greater than 5 lobes

Usually a result of normal aging or endogenous/exogenous glucocorticoids
What is wrong with this Neutrophil
What is the leukocyte response to inflammation?
Consumption of neutrophils in inflammatory response = increase production and early release

Total neutrophil is dependent on balance between consumption and production

There are species differences and lesional differences
What would we see in an excitement and physiologic response like with epinephrine?
Increased blood flow through flow through microcirculation

2-4 fold increase neutrophil concentration

Most cats/healthy animals see lymphocytosis and neutrophilia

Return within normal in one hour
When would we see a stress response in animals?
Illness, pain, metabolic disturbances
Corticosteroid producing tumors
Netrophilia and lymphopenia
+/- Eosinopenia
What would you see in a neutrophilia due to inflammation?
Left shift and neutrophil greater than 2 times upper limit
When would you see in a neutrophilia due to excitement?
Lymphocytosis, +/- lymphopenia +/- monocytosis, no left shift
What would you see in a neutrophilia due to stress?
No left shift, lymphopenia +/- monocytosis
Where do we see lymphocytosis?
Excitement response
Lymphoproliferative disease
Antigenic stimulation
When do we see neutropenia?

Immune-mediated destruction

Lack of production by bone marrow
Reversible - viral injury, chemo

Irreversible - FeLV
When do you see lymphopenia?
Steroid response

Acute viral infections

Immunodefeciency (uncommon) SCID in arabian foals, basset hounds
When do you see monocytosis?

Stress response
When do you see Eosinophilia?
Parasitism (with long tissue contact)


Lesions producing eosinophil

Ex) heartworm, hookworm, dermatitis, asthma
When do we see Basophilia?
Usually accompanies eosinophilia
What does it mean when you have macrocytic anemia?
There is regeneration
What does it mean when there is microcytic anemia?
Iron deficiency anemia
Where do you examine RBC and WBC morphology on a blood film?
In the counting area (between the feathered edge and the body)
What does it mean when we nucleated RBCs?
Ribosomes and mitochondria are still present because it is still young cell.
If you see it in the blood you know that the bone marrow is pumping out immature red cells
What are causes for anemia?
Bone marrow
Blood loss
Blood destruction
What is Hypochromasia?
increased central palor, decreased color in RBCs

Less hemoglobin - iron deficiency anemia
What are Spherocyte? how are the important clincally?
they are the most diagnostic RBC cell change in a dog most likely due to immune hemolyic anemia
What are important Erythrocyte shapes?
Spiculated- projections seen with electrolyte imbalances, kidney disease, rattlesnake envenomation (echinocytes)
-Acanthocyte - few unevely distributed projection due to lipid changes in RBC membrane (hepadic lipidosis (cats) hemangiosarcoma (dogs)
-Keratocyte - breaking open blisters seen with
Schistocytes - fragmented RBCs - due to iron deficiency anemia, DIC, vascular tumors

Sphereocytes - ball like seen with immune mediated hemolytic anemia
What are Eccentrocytes and when do you see them?
Shift of hemoglobin to once side of the cell resulting in a clear zone outlined by membrane

Caused by oxidative damage such as may be seen with ingestion of onion in dogs. Often seen in conjunction with Heinz body formation
What are stomatocytes?
Mouth like clear area in the center of the RBC

A few are usually present and are insignigicant

Hereditary stomatocytosis reported in alaskan malamutes, miniature schnauzers and Drentse partrijhound
What is heinz body anemia?
Oxidatively denatured hemoglobin
Causes met hemoglobin which can't carry oxygen , toxic to liver cells

Hemoglobin that is denature causes the Red cell to be stiff and unable to change shape and it is more likely to be phagocytizes. Due to decreased receptors = more likely to see an immune mediated hemolytic anemia
In what diseases are we likely to see heinz body formation?
Acetaminophen in cats
Propylene glycol in cats
Ilness in cats
Onion in all species
Garlic powder in all species
Cephalosporins in dogs
Zinc toxicosis in penny ingestion

Phenothiazine - horses
Wilted red maple leaves - horses
Kale - cattle
Sheep- copper toxicosis
What are basophilic stippling of RBCs?
Abnormal aggregation of ribosomes
Appear as small basophilic granules
Normal in ruminants
May see with very regenerative anemia in cats and dogs

If you see significant amount in small animals consider lead poisoning
What are Howell-Jolly Bodies?
Nucleated RBCs
Normally seen with regenerative anemia
Non- functioning spleen or splenectomy
increased corticosteroids

Consider lead posioning
What does it mean if you seen Rubriblasts and/or prorubricytes in peripheral blood?
Either the bone marrow is destroyed due to trauma or there is a red cell leukemia
What do parasites that affect RBCs do?
Cell loses hemoglobin making organism easier to see in cytoplasm