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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theoretical Yield
moles x Mr
Percentage Yield
Actual yield
Theoretical yield
Atom Economy
Masses of products
Mr of reactants
Limiting Reagent
Find Mr of one reagent
Find Mr of other
Use mole:mole to find moles of product
LR least no. moles
What is a Mole?
Amount of substance which contains the same number of particles (atoms) as there are atoms in 12g Carbon
Atomic mass (Ar)
The mass of 1 mole of an element in gmol-1
State Hess' Law
The enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the route taken
Enthalpy of Formation ΔHf
- The enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states
- Under standard conditions
- (1atm pressure, 25C or 298K)
Enthalpy of reaction ΔHr
The enthalpy change when reaction occurs in the molar quantities as written under standard conditions in standard state
Heat Produced =

mass x heat capacity x ΔT

- Slow reaction so heat lost to surroundings
- Heat absorbed by metal and thermometer
Enthalpy of combustion ΔHc
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of compound is completely burnt in oxygen
Sources of error of finding ΔHc
> Takes long time so not all heat lost compensated by extrapolation
> Heat released heats up air
> Beaker absorbs some heat
> Fuel may not burn completely (incomplete combustion)
> Some fuel evaporates
Enthalpy of Neutralisation ΔHneu
Enthalpy change when 1 mole of water is formed from the neutralisation of H+ ions by OH ions
Enthalpy of atomisation
Enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous atoms is formed from an element in its standard state
Bond enthalpy:

CH4(g) → C(g) + 4H(g) Mean Bond
= bonds broken - bonds made
Soluble Compounds
Group metal 1
Ammonium compounds
Chlorides ex Ag and Pb
Sulphates ex SR, Ba and Pb
Insoluble Compounds
Carbonates ex group 1 and ammonium
Hydroxides ex g1, ammonium, Ba, Sr, and Ca