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82 Cards in this Set

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What are the charges of an Atoms' nucleus and electron?

Nucleus = Positively charged

Electrons = Negatively charged

nEg = E = Negative

Nu = New = Positive

What do the bonds of atoms make?

Molecules or Compounds.

How do Atoms form bonds?


Loses = positive charge

Gains = negative charge


What forms an Ionic Bond?

When a positive ion and a negative ion attract one another and join together.

What forms a Covalent Bond?

When the atoms in the covalent bond share a pair of electrons.

What is the formula for Hydrochloric Acid?


What is the formula for Calcium Chloride?


What is the formula for Sodium Carbonate?


What are Emulsifiers?

Additives to make oil and water mix well together.

Why do we use additives in food and give examples.

To improve flavour, colour and make them last longer.

Flavour Enhancers - taste and smell

Food Colours - look more appetising

Antioxidants - to preserve food

Emulsifiers - help oil and water blend together (ice cream and salad cream)

What does an emulsifier molecule contain?

Hydrophilic head and a Hydrophobic tail.

What does Hydrophilic mean?

Likes water, hates oil.

What does Hydrophobic mean?

Hates water, likes oil.

How do the emulsifier molecule keep the emulsion from separating?

The other oil droplets are repelled by the hydrophilic bit of the emuslfier, while water molecules latch on.

Why do some foods have to be cooked?

- better taste and texture

- easier to digest

- kills nasty microbes that cause diseases

- some foods are poisonous raw

What happens to the chemical change in Eggs and Meat?

They are proteins.

Protein molecules change shape when you heat them.

The energy from cooking breaks some of the bonds therefore allows the molecule to change shape - giving a more edible texture.

What happens to the chemical change in Potatoes?

Potatoes are plants - each cell is surrounded by a rigid wall made of cellulose.

Humans can't digest cellulose.

Cooking the potato ruptures the cell walls, also makes starch grains inside swell up and spread. This makes the potato softer and easier to digest.

What happens when you heat baking powder?

It undergoes Thermal Decomposition.

It's a process.

What is Thermal Decomposition?

When a substance breaks down into simpler substances when heated. Many of thermal decompositions are helped by using a catalyst.

What is the word equation for Baking Powder during its Thermal Decomposition?

Sodium hydrocarbonate → Sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water

What is the job of the carbon dioxide in baking cakes?

To make it rise.

How do we test for Carbon Dioxide?

Using limewater. CO2 turns cloudy when it's bubbled through.

Give examples of natural esters.

Fruits and Flowers - Apples and Jasmine.

What is the use of manufactured esters?

For perfumes and flavourings.

How can you make an Ester?

By heating carboxylic acid with alcohol. An acid catalyst is usually used.

What is a Carboxylic Acid?

It is an acid built around one or more carbon atom.

What is the equation for Ester?

Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water

What are the properties that Perfumes need? And why?

- easy evaporation (or else the perfume won't reach your nose)

- non-toxic (it must seep through your skin or poison you)

- doesn't react with water (or else it would react with sweat)

- doesn't irritate skin (you wouldn't be able to directly apply it)

- insoluble in water (wash off every time you get wet)

What are the views about testing on animals?

Some say it's okay for protection of humans.

Some say it's not okay for the danger of animals' lives.

What are the properties of a Solid particle?

- strong forces of attraction between them

- this gives a lattice structure

- they don't move so it keeps a definite shape

What are the properties of a Liquid particle?

- some forces of attraction

- this means they're free and don't stick

- don't have a definite shape

- same volume

- constantly moving

What are the properties of a Gas particle?

- no force of attraction

- this means they're free and will collide

- no definite shape

- no volume

- always fill a container

- constantly moving

What is the definition of Volatility?

How easily liquid evaporates.

About liquids.

What is a Solution?

It is a mixture of a solute and a solvent that does not separate out?

What is a Solute?

It is the substance being dissolve usually a solid.

What is a Solvent?

It is the liquid tha tis used to dissolve the solute/solid.

What does Soluble and Insoluble mean?

Soluble = will dissolve

Insoluble = will not dissolve

Sol = Solve

Solve = DISsolve

What does Solubility mean?

A measure of how much something will dissolve.

What are the two reasons explaining why Nail Varnish does NOT dissolve in water?

1) The molecules if nail varnish are strongly attracted to each other. This attraction is stronger than the attraction between nail varnish and water molecules.

2) The molecules in water are strongly attracted to each other. This attraction is stronger than the attraction between nail varnish and water molecules.

Why can Nail Varnish dissolve in Acetone (propanone)?

This is because the attraction between acetone molecules and nail varnish molecules is stronger than the attractions holding the two substances together.

What 3 things do Paints usually contain?

1) Solvent

2) Binding Medium

3) Pigment

What does the pigment do in Paints?

Give it colour.

What does the Binding Medium do to paints?

It is the liquid that carries the pigment bits and holds it together. When the binding medium goes solid it sticks the pigments to the surface you've painted.

What does the Solvent do in Paints?

It helps thin the paint and makes it easier to spread.

What ia an emulsifier and what is its job?

An emulsifier is an additive.

It helps oil and water blend together in foods.

Why can't we eat uncooked potatoes?

Potatoes are plant cells - so each cell is surrounded by cellulose. Humans cannot digest this so cooking potatoes ruptures the cell walls making it softer and easier to digest.

Esterification produces ester and water - what are the reactants?

Acid and Alcohol.

Two things are needed to react together to make esters and water.

Name 3 properties that a substance must have in order to make a good perfume.

- insoluble in water (rain)

- doesn't irritate the skin

- doesn't react with water (sweat)

- non-toxic

- easily evaporates (so you can smell it)

A substance keeps the same volume, but changes it's shape according to the container it's held in. Is it a solid, liquid or a gas and why?

It is a liquid.

This is because there is some force of attraction between the particles so liquids don't keep a definite shape but they do keep the same volume.

In salt water what is the solute and the solution?

Salt = Solute

Water = Solution

What is a colloid?

A colloid consists of tiny particles of one kind of thing mixed in with another kind of thing - however they do not dissolve.

To do with paints.

How do oil paints dry?

Firstly, solvent in the oil evaporates. Secondly, the oil is oxidised by the oxygen in the air before it turns into a solid.

There two steps.

Which paint takes longer to dry - oil-based or water-based?


Why are water-based paints ideal for painting inside walls?

- they are fast-drying

- don't produce harmful fumes

Why are oil-based paints used for painting outside doors/metalwork?

- glossy

- waterproof

- hard-wearing

- produce harmful fumes

What are thermochromic paints?

They are mixed using thermochromic pigments that change colour or become transparent when heated or cooled.

Name four uses of thermochromic pigments/paints?

- baby spoons

- bath toys

- drinking mugs

- novelty mugs

What makes glow-in-the-dark watches glow in the dark?

Phosphorescent pigments.

How do phosphorescent pigments work?

They absorb natural or artificial light and store the energy in the molecules. This energy is released as light over a period of time.

Name four examples of when phosphorescent pigments are used.

- watches/clocks (glow-in-the-dark hands)

- traffic signs

- emergency exits

- novelty items

Name the monomer used to make polymers.

Alkenes, bruh.

Plastic bags stretch and melt easily. Are the forces between polymers weak or strong and why?

They are weak. This is because the plastic bags would be made up of long chains and if they're weak, this means they will be free to slide over each other.

Give one disadvantage of burning plastics.

It will produce harmful gases into the atmosphere such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen cyanide.

Give one disadvantage of burying plastic.

They take years to decompose so they will fill up landfills and therefore is a waste of land.

What test can you do that proves whether a hydrocarbon is an alkene?

You mix a sample of hydrocarbon with bromine water and then shake it. ALKENE would make an additional reaction. Bromine adds to double blond and make the solution colourless.

In a fractioning column the shortest hydrocarbons change as they increase in size. True or False?

It is False.

Give three ways that the properties of hydrocarbons change as they increase in size.

- boiling point increases

- more viscous (doesn't flow so easily)

- less volatile (doesn't evaporate easily)

- less flammable

Why can small hydrocarbon molecules change state from liquid to gas more easily than big ones?

Because the intermolecular forces of attraction are stronger in the bigger molecules so it's harder to break them apart.

Whereas smaller molecules, are easier to break down therefore they can change state easily.

What is Cracking used for?

It is used for splitting up long-chain hydrocarbons in order to produce more of the chains in the oils for more produce of oils.

What two conditions are needed for cracking to happen and why?

Lots of heat - To break down the stronf covalent bonds to make more bonds.

Catalyst - To speed up the reaction for faster results.

Explain why the amount of fossil fuels being used is increasing all the time.

It is increasing because the Earth's population is increasing all the time. There is always more demand for more energy and fossil fuels provide it.

Explain why the amount of fossil fuels being used is increasing all the time.

It is increasing because the Earth's population is increasing all the time. There is always more demand for more energy and fossil fuels provide it.

Explain why having few oil and gas reserves might become a problem for a country like the UK.

It's harder for the UK to get a hold of it for energy. They may become dependant on politically unstable countries and could become cut off at anytime.

How might an oil slick harm sea birds?

- cover sea birds' feathers

- stops them being waterproof

- water soaks into their feathers

- die of cold.

- birds can't fly due to matted feathers from oil.

Give four factors wich affect the choice of fuel for a job.

- energy value

- availability

- storage

- cost

- toxicity

- ease of use

- pollution

Give two advantages of complete combustion over incomplete combustion.

- only produces two harmless waste products

- clean blue flames

3 billion years ago, the Earth's atmosphere was mostly CO2. Where did this CO2 come from?

They came from volcanoes.

What process produces O2?

From the photosynthesis of green plants.

What two processes produce N2?

1) Ammonia reacting with Oxygen.

2) Released by denitrifying bacteria.

Explain The Carbon Cycle.

1) Respiration, combustion and decay of plants and animals add carbon dioxide into the air and remove oxygen.

2) Photosynthesis does the opposite - it rmeoves caebon dioxide and adds oxygen.

3) These processes should all balance out however we ****** up the carbon cycle.

What kind of air pollution makes limestone buildings and statues look worn?

Acid Rain!!!!!!

Name a poisonous gas that catalytic converters help to remove from car exhausts.