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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the enthalpy change?

Heat energy change under constant pressure

WHat is lattice enthalpy?

Enthalpy change when 1 mole of a solid ionic lattice is separated into its gaseous ions under standard conditions

What is bond dissociation enthalpy?

Enthalpy change when all the bonds of the same type in 1 mole of gaseous molecules are broken

What is enthalpy of atomisation of an element?

Enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous atoms is formed from an elements in its standard state

What is enthalpy of atomisation of a compound?

ENthlapy change when 1 mole of a compound is converted into gaseous atoms

What is the enthalpy chang eof solution?

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a solute is dissovled in suficent solvent such that no enthalpy change occurs on further dilution (the ions are fully separated and do not interact with one another)

What is the purely ionic model?

Ions are perfectly spherical point charges with charge evenly distributed around them

Why is enthalpy of hydration exothermic?

Water is polar as oxygen is electronegative;

positive ions form weak bonds with e=oxygen atom

Why are mean bond enthalpies not accurate?

Taken as a range over diff compoudns;

strength of bond varies between compounds;

not specific to particular compound;

experimental data better

What is the issue with lattice enthalpy?

Cant bea measured directly

What is entropy?

A measure of disorder, numebr f ways particles can be arranged/energy can be shared

What are 3 ways of increasing entropy?

Increase number of particles;

Gases move more randomly and quicker

dissolving a solid (particles can move freely and not held in one place

What is a spontaneous reaction?

One that occurs with no additional energy input

Why does water evaporate?

Increase in entropy although endothermic

Why is sodium more reactive than magnesium

Sodium only has to lose one eelctron, magnesium has to lose two

losing one requires less energy

Why is sodium more reactive than magnesium

More energy required to remove one electron

How does sodium react wih water?

Fizzes and forms a molten ball giving off hydrogen gas

How does Magnesium react with cold water? How can you tell that a reaction has happened?

Very slowly to produce hydroxide and oxygen;

weakly alkaline solution formed

Why is magnesium only form a weakly alkaline solution?

Only partly soluble

Describe all reactions of period 3 elements with oxygen

Sodium = yellow flame/vigorous

magnesium = brillinat white flame/vigorous

aluminium = N/A / slow

silicong = N/A / slow

phosphorous = brilliant white / spontaneous

sulphur = blue/steadily burns

How do you produce SO3 ?

Catalsyt and high temp

Why is the melting point of aluminium oxide lower than magnesium oxide?

Al3+ ion distrots/polarises electron cloud, bond partially covalent and weaker so less energy to separate ions

Where do melting points of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide lie relative to sodium oxide and magnesium

Both above sodium below magnesium

silicon below aluminium

Why dont silicon dioxide and aluminiun oxide react with water?

They are insoluble

What is the name given to H2SO3?

sulfurous acid oro sulfuric(IV) acid

How do you demonstrate that aluminium oxide is amphoteric?

Al2O3 + 3H2O + 2NaOH -----> 2NaAl(OH)4;

Al2O3 + 6HCl ----> 2AlCl3 + 3H2O

What do reducing agents and oxidising agents do?

Reeducing agents donate electrons and oxidising agents accept electrons

What is a salt bridge?

A piece of filter paper soaked in aqueous KNO3 that completes the circuit and allows the movement of ions

What is the standard electrode potential

The voltage measured under standard conditions when the half cells si connected to a standard hydrogen electrode

What factors affect the electrode potential of a half cell?

Concentration, perssure, temp

How do rechargebable cells work?

Current supplied;

electrons forced opposite way around the circuit;

reactions are reversed;

none of the substances used up or escape

Why cant you recharge a normal dry cell battery?

Casing oxidised and wears away or a substance escapes

What are the pros of rechargeable batteries?

They are cheaper in the long run;

provide more power and can be used in high power devices;

less resources used making them and less landfill

What are the cons of rechargeable batteries?

More likely to contain heavy metals and toxic elements;

expensive to buy;

don't last as long before running out of charge

What are the pros of non-rechargeable batteries?

Cheaper to buy;

last longer before running out of charge;

less likely to contain heavy metals and toxic elements

What are the cons of non-rechargeable batteries?

Expensive in the long run;

more have to be made and more space in landfill;, boh

can't provide all that much power

Describe a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell?

2 platinum electrodes (platinum coating over porous ceramic material);

separated by ion exchange membrane to allow movement of ions and not electrons;

and in acidic/alkaline electrolyte;

electrons forced to move around external circuit

What are the advantages of fuel cells?

Constant supply of electricity as long as constant supply of fuel;

onyl waste is water

What are the disadvantages of fuel cell?

Need constant supply of fuel;

hydrogen flammable;

produced throough electrolysis

What is a transition metal?

A metal that forms one or more stable ions with a partially filled d subshell

Why are zinc and scandium not transition metals

Zn only forms 2+ with full d subshel

Sc only forms 3+ with empty d subshell

What are the physical properties of transition metals?

High melting point/high boiling point

high density

similar ionic radii

What are the chemical properties of transition metals/

Variable oxidation states

form complex ions

form coloured ions

act as catalysts

Why do transition metals have similar chemical proerties?

Due to incomplete d subshell

Why do transition metals have variable oxidation states?

Energy levels of the 4s and 3d subshell are close together, different amounts of electrons can be lost or gaines using similar amounts of energy

What colour is aqueous V2+?


What colour is aqueous V3+?


What colour is aqueous (VO)2+?


What colour is aqueous (VO2)+?


What is a complex ion?

Transition metal ion surrounded by coordinately bonded ligands

What is a co-ordinate bond?

A covalent bond in which both electrons come from the same atom

What is a ligand?

A species that donates a lone pair of electrons TO A CENTRAL METAL ION

What is a unidentate ligand?

A species that forms only one coordinate bond with a central metal ion

What do dashed arrows represnt?

Bonds sticking out behind the molecule

What are the units of Plankcs constant and what is the value?