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26 Cards in this Set
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molarity 
M 

mass percent 
aka weight percent 

mole fraction 
X 

molality 
m 

normality 
N number of equivalents per liter of solution acidbase, divide by the number of H+ ions redox, divide by number of e 

enthalpy (heat) of solution (delta H soln) 
may be positive (energy absorbed, endo) may be negative (energy released, exo) steps 1 and 2 are usually endo, step 3 is usually eco 

formation of liquid solution enthalpy 


energy and the formation of solutions 
smaller enthalpies have a higher chance of forming solutions 

Henry's law 
amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution. C: concentration of dissolved gas k: constant characteristic of a particular solution P: partial pressure of gaseous solute above the solution


Raoult's Law, non volatile 
Psoln is the observed vapor pressure of the soln Xsolv is the mole fraction of the solvent P0solv is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent 

Raoult's Law, volatile 


raoult's law deviations 
negative deviation: lower vapor pressure than predicted, strong interactions positive deviation: higher vapor pressure than predicted, weak interactions 

raoult's law deviations and relation to enthalpy 
negative: large amounts of energy released due to strong interactions positive: small amounts of energy released due to weak interactions 

boiling point elevation 
a nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of the solvent 

common k constants for boiling and freezing 


freezing point depression 


osmotic pressure 


isotonic solution 
solutions that have identical osmotic pressures 

van't hoff factor 
The expected value for i can be calculated for a salt by noting the number of ions per formula unit. For example, for NaCl, i is 2; for K2SO4, i is 3; and for Fe3(PO4)2, i is 5. van't hoff factor is used for salts, not non electrolytes weak acids only don't have it 

Expected and observed van't hoff factors 
van't hoff factor is used for salts, glucose is a non electrolyte 

Enthalpy calculation for solutions 
aq  solid negative is exo, solubility decreases as temp rises positive is endo, solubility increases as temp rises 

cubic centimeter 
equivalent to a mL 

solubility 
ionic compounds dissolve readily in water the longer the hydrocarbon chain, the more non polar it is water is polar


hydration in an aqueous solution 
Interactions between the water molecules and ions are stronger with smaller ions. Interactions between the water molecules and ions increases as the charge on the ions increase. 

how to find empirical formulas 
1. find the percent of the total of each atom 2. multiply by 100g 3. multiply by the molecular weight of the atom 4. round to the nearest integer


how to find molecular formulas 
1. compare molecular weight of the empirical formula against a determined molecular weight 2. multiply the empirical formula by the multiple difference 