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43 Cards in this Set

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Determined by how close a measurement is to a "True" or "Accepted" value. Accuracy is measured in terms of error.


The difference between the measures value of a quantity and the "True" or "accepted" value. Error is classified as either systematic or random.

Systematic Error

Is attributable to definite cause such as an instrument, malfunction, miscalculation, or erroneous technique.

Random Error

Characteristic of a particular device or instrument or an individual's technique.


Is defined as the reproducibility of results or how many decimal places you can measure with a particular instrument

On a ruler, it is point to the 3 in centimeters. What is the marking?

3.0 cm

On a thermometer, it is at the long 63. How would you write that?


On a graduated cylinder, it is filled up to the line of 43. How would you write that?

43.0 mL

What is the formula for Density ?

Mass ÷ Volume

What are the units of density ?


What is the formula for percent error ?

Experimental - Accepted ÷ Accepted ×100

Law of Conservation of Mass

States that the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of the element at the end of the reaction.

Law of Definite Proportions

States that a pure compound will always have the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass

Law of Constant Composition

Applies regardless of how the substance is made, where it is found, or how many different reactions are followed to form the compound.

Empirical Formula

Is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound

Molecular Formula

Represents the actual number of each type of atoms in a compound

Formula for calculating molecular formula

Molecular molar mass ÷ empirical molar mass


The numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a balanced chemical equation

Limiting Reactant

Reactant that is completely consumed in a chemical reaction

Reactant in Excess

Any reactant that occurs in greater quantity than is required to completely react with the limiting reactant

Theoretical Yield

Macimum amount of product that can be produced in a chemical reaction based on the amount of limiting reactant available

Actual yield

The amount of product that is actually produced or recovered experimentally in a lab

Percent yield

The percentage of the theoretical yield thay is obtained experimentally in a lab


The solid is formed as a result of a chemical reaction

Supernatant Liquid or Supernate

the liquid solution that exists above the precipitate in the reaction mixture


the use of filter paper to separate an insoluable solid from a liquid in a reaction mixture


The precipitate thay collects on the filter paper


The liquid that passes through the filter paper and the funnel

Formula of % yield

Mass of actual yield ÷ mass of theoretical yield × 100%


A measure of amount of solute in a solution

What is the formula for Molarity

Mol of Solute ÷ L of solution

Combination Reaction

Is a reaction in which two or more reactant are combined to form a single product.

What is the formula for a combination reaction ?

A + B 》 AB

Decomposition Reaction

When a single reactant is decomposed or broken down into two or more products

What is the formula for a decomposition reaction

AB 》 A + B

Single Replacement Reaction

A substitution or displacement reaction occurs when a single free element replaces or is substituted for one of the elements in a chemical compound

What is the formula for a single replacement reaction

A + BC 》 AC + B

Double Replacement Reaction

Is a reaction in which there is an "exchange in partners"

What is the formula for a double replacement reaction

AB + CD 》 AD + CB

Molecular equation

Is the chemical equation that shows the complete neutral formulas for every compound in a reaction

2NH4Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) 》 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l) + CaCl2(aq)

Complete ionic equation

Is the chemical equation that shows all of the species as they are actually present in a solution

2NH4+ + 2Cl- + Ca+2 + 2OH- 》 2NH3 + 2H2O + Ca+2 + 2Cl-

Net ionic

Is an equation thay shows only the species thay change during the reaction

NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) 》 NH3(g) + H2O(l)

Spectator ions

Which do not participate in the reaction and remain unchanged on both sides of a chemical equation are included in the complete ionic equation but are excluded in the net ionic equation