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19 Cards in this Set

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Seven Sins of Memory

1) Transcience


2) Absent-mindedness


3) Blocking


4) Misattribution


5) Suggestibility


6) Bias


7) Persistence

Transcience

Tendency to lose access to information across time, whether through forgetting, interference, or retrieval failures

Absent-Mindedness

Everyday memory failures in remembering information and intended actvities, probably cause by insufficient attention or superficial, automatic processing during the encoding

Blocking

Temporary retrieval failure or loss of access, such as the tip-of-the-tongue state, more common in older adults

Misattribution

Remembering a fact correctly from past experience but attributing it to an incorrect source or content

Suggestibility

Tendency to incorporate information provided by others into your own recollection and memory representation

Bias

Tendency for knowledge, beliefs and feelings to distort recollection of previous experiences and to affect current and future judgements

Persistence

Tendency to remember facts or events. Including traumatic memories, that one would rather forget, that is, failure to forget because of intrusive recollections and rumination

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885)

Emphasized learning in the laboratory under tightly controlled conditions



Tried to eliminate all meaning from his experiments (using nonsense syllables)



Bottom-up, episodic approach

Sir Frederick Bartlett (1932)

Emphasized meaning by using real world text materials and stories



Top-down, semantic approach



Serial reproduction: transmit the material to someone else (telephone)



Found omissions in details and mood, rationalization, had a dominant detail, and transformed sequences and details

Bransford & Franks (1971)

Revived Bartlett's approach but focused on how we comprehend; abstracting and integrating meaning



Study: Read 1-3 "ideas" sentences, then tested from 1-4 "ideas" sentences; rated recognition and confidence levels



Study: Read sentence with either "with" or "on" and had to find out whether "The fish swam under the turtles"

Bransford & Johnson (1973)

Study: participants had a passage that describes an action; were either given a title or picture of the action before, after, or none.



Result: Title or picture only helped if given before the passage

Sulin & Dooling

Participants saw either a fictitious or famous name in a passage; after they were asked to identify if sentence was from passage



Results: prior experience (Adolf Hitler)nprimed to recalling false information

Self- Relevance Effect: Rogers, Kulper & Kirker (1977)

Subjects rated list of adjectives in terms of how descriptive they were of themselves; were then given surprise recall test for adjectives



Result: The more self-relevant the adjectives were rated, the better the recall

Prospective Memory

Remembering to do something in the future

Reconstructive Memory

The tendency in recall or recognition to include ideas or elements that were inferred or related to the original stimulus but were not part of the original stimulus itself

Semantic Integration

The tendency to store related pieces of information into an integrated, unified representation

Technical Accuracy

Accuracy in recall or recognition that is scored according to verbatim criteria; recalling or recognizing exactly what was experienced

Content Accuracy

Accuracy in recall or recognition based on the content or meaning of the stimulus rather than the literal or verbatim stimulus that was presented; recalling or recognizing the meaning or content of what was experienced