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20 Cards in this Set

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Cognitive Psychology

The scientific study of human memory and mental processes, including activities such as perceiving, remembering, using language, reasoning, and solving problems

Intuitive Cognitive Analysis Process

Sensory and perceptual > Memory and retrieval > Comprehension > Judgment and decision > Computational

Memory

Mental process of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval

Cognition

The collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and understanding, and the act of using those processes

Ecological Validity

Principle that research must resemble the situations and characteristics of the real world, rather than rely on artificial laboratory settings and tasks, so that results will generalize to the real world

Analytic Approach

The attempting to understand complex events by breaking them down into their components

Empiricism

The philosophical position, originally from Aristotle, that advance observation-derived data as the basis for all science

Wilhelm Wundt

Introspection: largely abandoned method of investigation in which subjects look inward and describe their mental processes and thoughts

Edward Titchener

Structuralism: the approach in which the structure of the conscious mind was studied

Hermann Von Ebbinghaus

Nonsense syllables experiment; forgetting curves

William James

Functionalism: the functions of consciousness, rather than its structure were of interest (How does the mind function?,How does it adapt to new circumstances?) Proposed memory consists of two parts: 1) immediate memory, which we are aware of, and 2) a larger memory, usually hidden or passive, that is the repository of past experiences

John B. Watson & B.F. Skinner

Behaviourism: Only stimuli and responses matter

Metatheory

General theoretical framework consisting of the assumptions made by practitioners of a science that guide the research activities of those practitioners

Channel Capacity

An early analogy for the limited capacity of the human information system

Short-Term Memory (STM)

Memory component where current and recently attended information is held; sometimes loosely equated with attention and consciousness

Long-Term Memory

An early analogy for the limited capacity of the human information- processing system

Encoding

To input or take into memory, to convert a usable mental form to store into memory

Sequential Stages of Processing

An assumption in most process models that the separate stages of processing occur in a fixed sequence, with no overlap of the stages

Parallel Processing

Any mental processing in which two or more processes or operations occur simultaneously

Dissociation

Pattern of abilities and performance, especially among brain-damaged patient, revealing that one cognitive process can be disrupted while another remains intact