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26 Cards in this Set

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Transfer

How is information copied into the store?

Capacity

How much information can the store hold?

Forgetting

How does information get lost from the store? (Decay)

Representation

What is the format of information in the store?

Retrieval

How is information recovered from the store?

George Miller & Herb Simon (1965)

Miller's analysis of short-term memory capacity (7 +/- 2 chunks)

Chunk

Anything in the working memory, which has a unitary representation in long-term memory

Recoding

Packing more information into each chunk, given that the number of chunks is limited

Mnemonic

"Shopping list: walk through the house to remember" A technique for improving memory

Interference

Poor remembering caused by interference by the counting task

Retroactive Interference (RI)

Newer material interferes backward in time with your recollection of older items

Proactive Interference (PI)

When older material interferes forward in time with your recollection of the current stimulus

Release from PI

Applying new information from a different category to "reset"

Saul Sternberg

Developed ways to measure working memory retrieval using recognition, not recall; used response time because accuracy would be perfect

Sequential/ Serial Scan

If scanning is one at a time, one item after another, then RT should increase with set size (goes through the whole list even when a match is found; still takes longer for a "no" as you have to go through the whole list before coming up with an answer)

Parallel Scan

If scanning examines all items at once, then RT should be constant over set size; both accounts make the same prediction for "no" and "yes" but "no" may take longer

Working Memory Operation

Central Executive: directs and controls all WM functions



Visio-spatial Sketchpad: slave system for holding visual information



Phonological Loop: slave system for holding and recycling auditory/ acoustic information


Recoding & Rehearsal

Verbal information is recoded into acoustic format in WM even when it is visually experienced



Conrad (1965): sound alike errors (ex. A E G T B)


Wickelgren (1965): RI from rhyming distractor task

Semantic Codes

Wickens' "release from PI" demonstrates importance of semantic codes in working memory

Mental Rotation

Ability to mentally rotate images indicates visual coding in working memory

Differences between SM and WM

Sensory Memory


- Infinite capacity


- Forgetting due to decay


- Raw representation



Working Memory


- Chunks of 7 +/- 2


- Forgetting due to interferences


- Largely phonological representation

Serial Position Curve

Primacy: Superior memory for the beginning information in a sequence



Asymptote: Average memory for information in the middle of a sequence



Recency: Superior memory for the ending information in a sequence



Slow presentation enhances primacy by a slight amount

Dissociation

An independent variable affects on situation or theoretical entity differently from another (ex. Distraction affects WM but not LTM)

Double Dissociation

Two situations or theoretical entities are affected in opposite ways by one or more independent variables (ex. Distraction affects WM but not LTM; rate of presentation and word frequency affects LTM but not WM)

Rehearsal Buffer

The component of short-term memory that holds information currently being rehearsed (mental recycling systems)

Process Model

Stage model designed to explain the sequential mental steps involved in performance of some task


- Encode Probe


- Scan and compare with memory set items


- Binary (yes/no) decisions


- Execute motor response