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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The axial skeleton is composed of _______ bones segregated into three regions _______, ________, and _________
- Eighty Bones
-Skull, Vertebral Column, and Bony Thorax
What is the bodys most complex bony structure. What is it formed by
-Cranium and Facial Bones
What bones supply the framework of the face, the sense organs and teeth
Facial Bones
What are the eight cranial bones
Two parietal, Two temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid and ethmoid
Cranial bones are _______ and remarkably _______ for their weight
Thing, Strong
Frontal bones from the _______ _________ of the _________
Anterior portion of the cranium
What are the three major markings on the frontal bone
Supraorbital margins, anterior cranial fossa, and the frontal sinuses
What bones from most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull
Parietal Bone
Coronal suture
Articulation between parietal bones and frontal bone anteriorly
Sagittal suture
Where right and left parietal bones meet superiorly
Which bone forms most of skulls posterior wall and base
Occipital Bone
What are the four major markings on the Occipital bone
-Posterior cranial fossa, Foramen magnum, occipital condyles and hypoglossal canal
Which bones form the inferolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor
Temporal Bones
What are the four major regions of the temporal bones
-Squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous
What are the five major markings of the temporal bones
-Zygomatic, styloid, mastoid processes, mandibular, and middle cranial fossae
What are the five major openings of the temporal bones
-Stylomastoid, jugular foramina, external and internal meatuses, and carotid canal
Which bone is butterfly-shaped that shapns the width of the middle cranial fossa
Sphenoid Bone
What are the four things the sphenoid bone consists of
Central body, greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes
What are the three major markings of the sphenoid bone
-Sella turcia, hypophyseal fossa, and the pterygoid process
What are the four major openings of the sphenoid bone
-Foramina rotundum, ovale, spinosum, optic canal, superior orbital fissure
Which bone is the most deep of the skull bone; lies between the sphenoid and nasal bone
Ethmoid Bone
Which bone forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits
Ethmoid Bone
What are the five major markings on the ethmoid bone
Cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, and the ethmoid sinuses
The face consist of _______ bones of which only the _____ and _______ are unpaired
Fourteen, Mandible, and Vomer
Name the six unpaired bones
-Maxillae, Zygomatic,Nasal, lacrimals, palatines and inferior conchae
Name the bones that are medially fused, make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton
Maxillary Bones
Name the major markings of the maxillary bones
Palatine, frontal, zygomatic processes, alevolar margins, inferior fissure and the maxillary sinuses
These bones are irregularly shaped, that form the prominences of the cheeks and the inderolateral margins of the orbits
Zygomatic Bones
These bones are thin mideally fused bones that from the bridge of the nose
Nasal Bones
These bones contribute to the mdeial walls of the orbit and contain a deep grove called the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac
Lacrimal Bones
These are two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a samll part of the orbits
Palatine Bones
These bones are plow shaped bones that forms the part of the nasal septum
These bones are paired, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Inferior nasal conchae
Name the bone cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue
Name the seven bones that form the orbits
-Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic,macilla,palatine, lacrimal and ethmoid
The nasal cavity is constructed of ______ and ______ _______
Bone and hyaline cartilage
what is the roof of the nasal cavity formed by
Formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmod
what is the lateral walls of the nasal cavity formed by
the superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid, the perpendicular plate of the palatine and the inferior nasa conchae
What is the floor of the nasal cavity formed by
the palatine process of the maxillae and palatine bone
What is the paranasal sinuses
mucosa lined, air filled found holes
What are the five skull bones where the paranasal sinuses are found
Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and paired maxillary bones
Describe the workings of the paranasal sinuses
Air enters the sinuses from the nasal cavity and mucus drains into the nasal cavity from the sinuses
Where is the hyoid bone located
lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck
what is the only bone in the body that does not articulate directly with another bone
Hyoid bone
the hyoid bone is the attachment point for _______ muscles that _____ and ______ the larynix during swallowing and speech
neck, raise and lower
How many bones form the vertebral column
26 irregular bones
How many bones form the cervical vertebrae and where is it located
7 bones, and the neck
How many bones form the Thoracic vertebrae and where is it located
12 bones, and the torso
How many bones form the Lumbar Vertebrae and where is it loacted
5 bones, and the lower back
What is the name of the bone that is inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones
What bones of the vertebrae cause posteriorly concave curvatures
Cervical and lumbar
What bones of the vertebrae cause posteriorly convex curvatures
Thoracic and sacral
Name the three abnormal spine curvatures and their unoffical name
-Scoliosis (Abnormal Lateral Curve)
-Kyphosis (Hunchback)
-Lordosis (Swayback)
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
Continuous bands down the front and back of the spine from the neck to the sacrum
These are cushionlike pads composed of two parts
Intervertebral discs
Nucleus pulposus
Inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility
annulus fibrosus
Aussorunds the nucleus puplous with collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage
What is the body or centrum in the vertebrae
Disc-shaped, weight-bearing region
What is the vertebral arch
Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen
What is the vertebral foramina
Makes up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes
Superior and inferior articular processes
protude superiorly and inferiorly from the pedicle-lamina junctions
Intervertebral foramina
lateral openings formed from notched areas on the superior and inferior borders of adjacent pedicles
What are the lightest and smallest vertebrae and how many are there
The cervical and 7
What does each transverse process contain
transverse foramen
What is the C1 vertebrae and name the unique characteristic of it
The Atlas, has no body or spinous process
What is the C2 vertebrae called and name its characteristic
The axis, has a body, spine and vertebral atches
What vertebral set has major markings including two facest and two demifacets, transverse process and a long spinous process
Thoracic Vertebrae
What vertebral set is located in the small of the back and have enchanced weight bearing functions
Lumbar Vertebrae
What vertebral set consists of five fused vertebrae, which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis
What vertebral set is made up of 4 to 5 fused vertebrae that articulate with the sacrum
Coccyx (Tailbone)
The thoracic cage is composed of the _____ vertebrae dorsally, the ______ laterally and the ______ and ______ cartilages anteriorly
Thoracic, Ribs, Sternum and Costal
What is the dagger-shaped flat bones that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax
Sternum (Breastbone)
What three bones are fused together in the sternum
-Superior manubrium
-Inferior Xiphoid
How many pairs of ribs from the flaring sides of the thoracic cage
The ribs are attached directly to the sternum via costal cartilages
7 true/vertebrosternal ribs
These ribs attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage
Ribs 8-10 False/Vertebrocondral ribs
These ribs have no anterior attachment
Ribs 11-12 Floating/Vertebral ribs
This type of rib is bowed, flatbone consisting of a head,neck,tubercle and shaft
True Rib
What is the appendicular skeleton made up of
The bones of the limbs and their girdles
The pectoral girdles consis of the _____ _______ and the ______ ________
Anterior clavicles and posterior scapulae
The pectoral girdles attach the upper _____ to the _____ skeleton in the manner that allows for maximum movement
limbs, axial
These bones are slinder, doubly curved lying across the superior thoraz
The clavicles provide attachment points for numerous ______, and act as braces to hold the _______ and _____ out laterally away from the body
-Muscles, scapulae, arms
This bone is triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, between the ______ and ______ ribs
Scapulae, Second and Seventh
The upper limb consist of the ________, _______ and ______
-Forearm (antebrachium)
-Hand (Manus)
What is the only bones of the upper arm
Name the two bones of the forearm
-Radius and Ulna
The forearm articulates proximally with the ______ and distally with the _____ bones
Humerous, Wrist
What membrane connects the forearm and ulna
This bone lies medially in the forearm and its slightly longer then the radius
What bone forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus
This bone lies opposite to the ulna and is think at it proximal end
The skeleton of the hand contains these three bones
-Wrist Bones (Carpals)
-Palm (Metacarpals)
-Fingers (Phalanges)
Name the four proximal bones of the carpus
Name the four distal bones of the carpus
These five bones radiate from the wrist to form the palm
Each hand contains these 14 miniature long bones
Each finger contains three phalanges called
This bone attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body
This is the large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the coxal bone
The ilium consists of a body and a superior wing like portion called the ____
This bones form the posteroinferor part of the hip bone
This bones forms the anterior portion of the hip bone
Name the three characteristics that define a female pelvis
-Tilted Forward
-True pelvis defines birth canal
-Cavity of true pelvis is broad, shallow and greater capactiy
Name the three characteristics that define a male pelvis
-Tilted less forward
-Adapted to support heavier male build
-True pelvis is narrow and deep
Name the three segments of the lower limb
This bone is the sole bone of the thigh, also the largest and strongest bone in the body
Name the two bones that form the skeleton of the leg
Tibia, Fibula
Name the membrane that connects the tibia and fibula
Interosseous Membrane
What bone in the lower body recieves the weight from the femur and transmits it to the foot
This bone is sticklike with slightly expanded ends located laterally to the tibia
Name the three main parts of the skeleton of the foot
This structure is composed of seven bones that form the posterior half of the foot
What two bones support most of the body weight on the foot
-Talus and Calcaneus
What bone forms the heel of the foot
This stucture forms the five long bones that articulate with the proximal phalanges
These are the 14 bones of the toes
Name the arch where cuboid is keystone of this arch
Lateral Longitudinal
Name the arch where talus is the keystone of this arch
Medial Longitudinal
Name the arc that runs obliquely from one side of the foot to the other