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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

The _________ ______ consists of 26 irregular bones connected in such a way that a flexible, curved structure results.

vertebral column
The 7 vertebrae of the neck are the ________ _________, the next 12 are the ________ _________, and the last 5 are the ______ _________.
cervical vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
Inferior to the lumbar vertebrae is the ______, which articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis.
The terminus of the vertebral column is the tiny ______.
Each ______________ ____ is a cushionlike pad composed of two parts.
intervertebral disk
Each vertebrae consists of a ____, or _______, anteriorly and a _________ ____ posteriorly.
vertebral arch
Together, the body and the vertebral arch enclose an opening called the _________ _______.
vertebral foramen
Successive vertebral foramen of the articulated vertebrae form the long _________ _____, through which the spinal cord passes.
vertebral canal
The ________, short bony pillars projecting posteriorly from the vertebral body, form the sides of the arch.
The _______, flattened plates that fuse in the median plane, complete the arch posteriorly.
The _______ _______ is a median posterior projection arising at the junction of the two laminae.
spinous process
A __________ _______ extends laterally from each side of the vertebral arch.
transverse process
Each transverse process contains a __________ _______ through which the vertebral arteries pass to service the brain.
transverse foramen
Because its spinous process is palpable through the skin, C7 can be ised as a landmark for counting the vertebrae and is called the ________ _________.
vertebra prominens
The _____ (C1) has no body and no spinous process.
The ____, which has a body and the other typical vertebral processes, is not as specialized as the atlas.
The axis's only unusual feature is the knoblike ____ projecting superiorly from its body. It is actually the "missing" body of the atlas, which fuses with the axis during embryonic development.
The vertebral body typically bears two small facets, commonly called __________, on each side, one at the superior edge and the other at the inferior edge. They receive the heads of the ribs.
In its posterior midline the sacral surface is roughened by the ______ ______ _____.
median sacral crest
The vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the ______ _____.
sacral canal
Since the laminae of the fifth (and sometimes fourth) sacral vertebrae fail to fuse medially, an enlarged external opening called the ______ ______ is obvious at the inferior end of the sacral canal.
sacral hiatus
The _______ lies in the anterior midline of the thorax.
The _________ is the superior portion of the sternum, which is shaped like the knot in a necktie.
(*think MAN's necktie*)
The ____, or midportion, forms the bulk of the sternum.
The _______ _______ forms the inferior end of the sternum.
xiphoid process
The superior seven rib pairs attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilages. These are ____ or vertebrosternal ribs.
The remaining five pairs of ribs are called _____ ____ because they either attach indirectly to the sternum or entirely lack a sternal attachment.
false ribs
Rib pair 11 and 12 are called vertebral ribs of ________ ____ because they have no anterior attachments.
floating ribs
the ________ ______, or shoulder girdle, consists of the clavicle anteriorly and the scapula posteriorly.
pectoral girdle
The _________, or collarbones, are slender, S-shaped bones that can be felt along their entire course as they extend horizontally across the superior thorax.
Each clavicle is cone-shaped at its medial _______ end, which attaches to the sternal manubrium, and flattened at its lateral _________ end, which articulates with the scapula.
The ________, or shoulder blades, are thin, triangular flat bones.
The thick lateral, or axillary, border abuts the armpit and ends superiorly in a small, shallow fossa, the _______ ______. This cavity articulates with the humerus of the arm, forming the shoulder joint.
glenoid cavity
The anterior, or costal, surface of the scapula is concave and relatively featureless. Its posterior surface bears a prominent _____ that is easily felt through the skin.
The spine ends laterally in an enlarged, roughened triangular projection called the ________.
Projecting anteriorly from the superior scapular border is the ________ _______. It looks like a bent finger. It helps anchor the biceps muscle of the arm.
coracoid process
The _______, the sole bone of the arm, is a typical long bone.
At the proximal end of the humerus is its smooth, hemispherical ____, which fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula in a manner that allows the arm to hang freely at one's side.
Immediately inferior to the head is a slight constriction, the __________ ____.
anatomical neck
Just inferior to the anatomical neck are the lateral ________ ________ and the more medial _______ ________, separated by the ________________ ______, or bicipital groove.
greater tubercle
lesser tubercle
intertubercular sulcus
Just distal to the tubercles is the ________ ____, so named because it is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus.
surgical neck
About midway down the shaft on its lateral side is the V-shaped _______ __________, the roughened attachment site for the deltoid muscle of the shoulder.
deltoid tuberosity
At the distal end of the humerus are two condyles: a medial ________, which looks like an hourglass tipped on its side, and the lateral ball-like _________.
The condyle pair is flanked by the ______ and _______ ___________.
lateral epicondyles
Superior to the trochlea on the anterior surface is the ________ _____; on the posterior surface is the deeper __________ _____.
coronoid fossa
olecranon fossa
The ____ is slightly longer than the radius. It forms the elbow joint with the humerus.
The ulna bears two prominent processes, the _________ (elbow) and the _________ _______, separated by a deep concavity, the trochlear notch.
coronoid process
On the lateral side of the coronoid process is a small depression, the ______ _____, where the ulna articulates with the head of the radius.
radial notch
Distally the ulnar shaft narrows and ends in a noblike ____.
Medial to the head is the _____ _______ _______, from which a ligament runs to the wrist.
ulnar styloid process
The ______ is thin at its proximal end and wide distally - the opposite of the ulna.
The ____ of the radius is shaped somewhat like the head of a nail.
Distally, where the radius is expanded, it has a medial ulnar notch, which articulates with the ulna, and a lateral ______ _______ _______.
radial styloid process
The carpus consists of eight marble-sized short bones, or _______, closely united by ligaments.
List the carpals from proximal lateral to distal medial.
(Sally Left The Party To Take Cindy Home)
Five ___________ radiate from the wrist like spokes to form the metacarpus or palm of the hand. They are numbered, not named, 1-5 from the pollex to the pinky.
The fingers, or ______ of the upper limb, are numbered 1-5 beginning with the pollex.
Except for the pollex, each digit has three phalanges:
The ______ ______, or hip girdle attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton, transmits the full weight of the upper body to the lower limbs, and supports the visceral organs of the pelvis.
pelvic girdle
The pelvic girdle is formed by the sacrum and a pair of hip bones, each also called an oscoxae, or _____ ____.
coxal bone
The _____ is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region of a coxal bone.
When you rest your hands on your hips, you are resting them on the thickened superior margins of the alae, the _____ ______, to which many muscles attach.
iliac crests
Each iliac crest ends anteriorly in the blunt ________ ________ _____ _____ and posteriorly in the sharp posterior superior iliac spine.
anterior superior iliac spine
Just inferior to the posterior inferior iliac spine, the ilium indents deeply to form the _______ _______ _____, through which the thick cordlike sciatic nerve passes to enter the thigh.
greater sciatic notch
Posterior to the iliac fossa, the roughened auricular surface articulates with the same-named surface of the sacrum, forming the __________ _____.
sacroiliac joint
The _______ forms the posterioinferior part of the hip bone.
The _______ _____ projects medially into the pelvic cavity and serves as a point of attachment of the sacrospinous ligament running from the sacrum.
ischial spine
The inferior surface of the ischial body is rough and grossly thickened as the _______ __________.
ischial tuberosity
The _____, or pubic bone, forms the anterior portion of the hip bone.
As the two rami of the pubis run laterally to join with the body and ramus of the ischium, they define a large opening in the hip bone, the _________ _______, through which a few blood vessels and nerves pass.
obturator foramen
The bodies of the two pubic bones are joined by a fibrocartilage disc, forming the midline _____ _________ joint.
pubic symphasis
The _____, the single bone of the thigh, is the largest, longest, strongest bone in the body.
The ball-like ____ of the femur has a small central pit called the fovea capitis.
The head is carried on a ____ that angles laterally to join the shaft.
At the junction of the shaft and neck are the lateral _______ __________ and posteromedial ______ __________. These projections serve as the sites of attachment for thigh and buttock muscles.
greater trochanter
lesser trochanter
Inferior to the intertrochanteric crest on the posterior shaft is the _______ __________, which blends into a long vertical ridge, the linea aspera, inferiorly.
gluteal tuberosity
Distally, the femur broadens and ends in the wheel-like _______ and ______ ________, which articulate with the tibia of the leg.
medial condyles
The smooth ________ _______, between the condyles on the anterior femoral surface, articulates with the patella.
patellar surface
The _______ is a triangular sesamoid bone enclosed in the (quadriceps) tendon that secures the anterior thigh muscles to the tibia.
The _____ receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot.
At its bread proximal end are the concave ______ and _______ ________, which look like two huge checkers lying side by side.
lateral condyles
Just inferior to the condyles, the tibia's anterior surface displays the rough ______ __________, to which the patellar ligament attaches.
tibial tuberosity
Medial to the tibia-talus joint surface is an inferior projection, the ______ _________, which forms the medial bulge of the ankle.
medial malleolus
The ______ is a sticklike bone with slightly expanded ends. It articulates proximally and distally with the lateral aspects of the tibia.
The fibula's proximal end is its head; its distal end is the _______ _________.
lateral malleolus
The tarsus is made up of seven bones called _______ that form the posterior half of the foot.
Body weight is carried primarily by the two largest, most posterior tarsals: the _____, which articulates with the tibia and the fibula superiorly, and the strong _________, which forms the heel of the foot and carries the talus on its superior surface.
The remaining tarsals are the lateral ______, the medial _________, and the anterior ______, ____________, and ________ ___________ bones.
lateral cuneiform
The metatarsus consists of 5 small, long bones called ___________. These are numbered 1-5 beginning on the medial side of the foot.