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36 Cards in this Set

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Tyranny (concept)

According to the Cambridge Online Dictionary, tyranny is the "government by a ruler or small group of people who have unlimited power over the people in their country or state and use it unfairly and cruelly".

The Parliamentary ministers' and George III's tyranny caused American dissent against Britain. The colonists first tried to solve the problem diplomatically through petitions and political groups (such as the Olive Branch Petition, the Stamp Act Congress, and the Continental Congress). However, when British response was ultimately another form of tyranny (like the Prohibitory Act), this gave the colonists a reason to break free from the British Empire.
Olive Branch Petition (concept)
(from 9/7/10 lecture) A petition drafted by the Americans in the 2nd Continental Congress which asked Britain for colonial self-government, and in return would stop pursuing independence from the empire.

Britain rejected the plan, then released the Prohibitory Act, which led the Americans to replace the petition with the Declaration of Necessity of Taking Up Arms.
Common Sense by Thomas Paine

Common Sense text: http://www.constitution.org/civ/comsense.htm
-->Published by Thomas Paine in 1776
1) Problem was not specific minister or regulation, but English Constitution and monarchistic system of govt.
2) George III & govt. corrupt b/c they dragged Americans to wars which Americans were not interested in, inflict brutality on their own people
3) "Common sense" for Americans to break free from Britain
-->Changed war outlook: support for independence grew, but still not unanimous with colonists
Thomas Jefferson (person)
Thomas Jefferson was a Virginian delegate who wrote most of the Declaration of Independence, along with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams.

In drafting the Declaration, Jefferson "borrowed" ideas already existent and published in other local governments, assemblies, and groups.
Nathaniel Greene (Person)
When Gates failed and the congress turned to Washington for help he appointed Greene to go South. When he arrived at King's mountain he confused Cornwallis by dividing the American forces into small fast moving contingents. His strategy was to keep his enemy and army on opposite sides of the river and ultimately surprised Cornwallis in 1781. Once Greene had gotten the supplies he combined his forces and met British at Guilford Court House. By this time Greene's army had inreased in number and he had kept the morale of his army whereas Cornwallis' army was disciplined. After a battle on March 15 1781 Greene withdrew. Though Cornwallis had lost so many men that he abandoned the Carolina Camplaign.

Declaration of Independence (concept)
The Declaration--written July 2, 1776, approved two days later by Congress--proclaimed the colonies as free and independent states, whose allegiance and politicial connections to the British crown were absolved.

The Declaration had two parts:
1) restatement of John Locke's contract theory; changed man's natural rights of life, liberty, and land to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
2) list of George III's crimes; George III and Parliament violated "contract", thus forfeited all claim to Americans' loyalty

This signified that the colonies were indeed fighting for sovereignty.
Yorktown (Place)
After the battle at the Guilford Court House with Greene, Cornwallis withdrew to Wilmington. But later Clinton moved him to take position on the peninsula between the York and James river and wait for ships to take his troops to NY or Charleston.(this was b/c of Clintons concern for the army's safety). At this time Washington , Rochambeau (commander of french expeditionary force in america), and Grasse set out to trap Cornwallis in Yorktown. Washington and Rochambeau took a french-american army from NY to join other french forces in Virginia. De Grasse at the same time sailed with additional troops to Chesapeake Bay an dYork river. They caught Cornwallis by both land and sea and he surrendered on Oct 17 1781
Treaty of Paris (Concept)
This treaty officially ended the war. It was signed by Jay, Adams, and Franklin in Paris claiming that Britain recognized United States as a independent nation. This treaty also brought a generous amount of land for the Americans. They expanded from the southern boundary of Canada to the northern boundary of Florida and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Britain also agreed to reove all of its troops from the nation. The US agreed to pay all the debt they owed to Britain and agreed to not persecute the loyalists in the nation.

Executives (concept) pg. 154
- when first sate constitutions were written the executive was given limited authority, like limited power over appointments, reducing or eliminating their right to veto bills, and preventing them from dismissing a legislature holding a seat in one; after the states began to ratify their constitutions there was a shift to a strengthening of the executive branch of government in which the governor was directly elected by the people, have a fixed salary, and have significant appointment powers and a veto over legislative decisions
Virginia’s Statute of religious liberty (concept) pg. 154
- written in 1777 by Thomas Jefferson , enacted in 1786 by Virginia General Assembly; this document supported the separation of church and state, and freedom of conscience; this separation of church and state was adopted by most other states as well
National Government (concept) pg. 155
- Articles of Confederation provided for a national government in which congress remained central; gave congress to conduct wars, foreign relations, and to appropriate, borrow, and issue money; but congress could not regulate trade, draft troops, or levy taxes, and for troops and taxes it had to make formal requests to state legislatures which could refuse them
Diplomacy (concept) pg.146-147
- practice of conducting relations between groups or states; British and Americans had diplomatic relations after the American Revolution in which the Treaty of Paris of 1783 was signed and America gained its independence and cession by England of colonial territory
Land Ordinance of 1784, 1785 (concept) pg.156
- 1784, divided the western territory, that was ceded to the Americans after the Revolution, into 10 self-governing districts each of which could petition congress for statehood when its population equaled the number of free inhabitants in the smallest existing states; 1785 established an enduring pattern of dividing up land for human use by using carefully measured and evenly divided squares or rectangles, this became the model for organizing towns and cities
Anglican Church (concept)
One of the results of the American Revolution was its effect of certain relligions. Anglicans, more specifically, who consisted mostly of Loyalists (who had become unpopular and had fled) in Virginia and Maryland suffered the most. So the revolutionary regimes disestablished the church and elimintaed the subsidy. Though Anglicism survived, it was greatly weakened. They became even more unpopular because of the unwillingness to fight (pacifism) which destroyed their social and political prestige. In result, as Anglicanism declined the Roman Catholic church rose up.
Judith Sargent Murray (person) page 150
Judith Sargent Murray was one of the leading essayists in the late 18th century and supported women's rights. Murray wrote in 1779 at the age of 28 that women's mind were as good as men's and the girls as well as boys deserved access to education. This work was called "On the Equality of the Sexes" and wasn't actually published unti 1790.

Molly Pitcher (person) page 150
Molly Pitcher (actually named Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley) is best known for taking her husband's place at a cannon during one battle after her husband was wounded. Molly represents many other women who volunteered on the battlefield for jobs such as cooking and nursing, and also those who disguised themselves as men.
Women's Rights (concept) page 150 - 151
The American Revolution caused many women and some men to question women's roles in society. The war had proved that women could do many of the tasks men could do and the increased emphasis on liberty and the "rights of man" led even more women to support their own rights. Women such as Abigail Adams and Judith Sargent Murray added to the women's rights movement, as well as political leaders Ben Franklin and Benjamin Rush. Higher education and more legal and economic rights were among women's demands. However, the American Revolution did little to increase women's rights and in fact only strengthened the patriarchal structure society rested on.
The Grid (concept)
The grid refers to the way the Confederation chose to divide up western lands belonging to the Confederation. Lands were divided neatly into 36 identical squares or rectangles with 4 reserved for the United States with revenue from those lands going to various causes such as the funding of public schools. This division became the norm for land distribution west of the Appalachians and a model for the organizations of towns and cities.
Abigail Adams (person) page 150
Abigail Adams, the wife of John Adams, was an early supporter of women's rights, although her demands were relatively modest when compared to women such as Judith Sargent Murray. Adams wanted new protections against abusive and tyrannical men. She proposed to her husband to include some reforms regarding women in their law-making processes in Congress. Abigail Adams didn't propose a total shift in society, as she pointed out in a letter to John that men were meant to protect women, so men were still to be in charge, just with some adjustments to the treatment of women.
Patriarchal Structure (concept) page 151-152
America in the 18th century was based on a patriarchal structure in which fathers determined all financial decisions and ran their families with tight control. Women worked in the home, raising children and doing domestic chores while the men earned money and participated in politics. The Revolution put even more emphasis on women's role in the home, in raising their children to be good American citizens, although women's ideas and interests received more respect.
Northwest Ordinance (concept)
- passed 1787
-created a single Northwest territory out of the lands north of Ohio and stated how it could be sectioned into states (5 ultimately maded)
- staes admitted to Union when free inhabitants reached 60k
-slavery and involuntary servitude not allowed
-set a precedent of how staes could join the Union
- guaranteed freedom of religion and right to trial by jury
Public Domain (concept)
- described lands not under public or state ownership 18th and 19th century USA
- Northwest Territory first US public domain
- used by government to promote settlement by selling acquired public domains
Battle of Fallen Timbers (event)
- 1794
- American General Anothony Wayn defeated the Miami Indians, largely ending violent resistance by the Miami.
- led to the Miami signing the Treaty of Greenville which ceded substantial lands to the United Staes in exchange for a formal acknowledgement of Miami claim to land they managed to retain
Postwar Depression (event)
- 1784-1787
- demonstrated congress weakness in having an adequate money supply to satisfy debtors as requisition appeals to states were insufficient and the Congress has no power to tax
- states had war debts, unable to pay pension of veterans
- difficult for states to raise taxes as farmers were already feeling considerable economic pressure with current taxes.
- dissatisfaction with economy led to a few rebellions, most prominently Shay's rebellion
Shay's rebellion (event)
- during a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's alnd and enacting debt collection
- citizens of Boston raised and army and suppressed rebels
- though rebellion was largely a failure, some concessions made such as some tax relief and a postponement of debt
- American felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence
Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill) Event
-April of 1775 in Boston
-Americans led by Washington against Gen. Gage.
-Patriots had huge losses during the Battle of Bunker Hill (6/17/1775) and ultimately driven away
-Americans were encamped at Bunker Hill and the hill was taken from them during the 4th charge by the British
-After the British suffered 1000+ casualties during the attacks, they halted their assaults on rebel strongholds in Boston
-Patriots inflicted more losses onto the British than towards themselves
-British suffered their largest casualties of the war at Bunker Hill

Saratoga (Event) Pg. 138
-New England militiamen led by John Stark defeated British troops sent by Burgoyne to get supplies
-With few supplies and materials, Burgonye was engaged in several costly conflicts and went to Saratoga where Gen. Gates surrounded Burgoyne and his men, resulting in Burgoyne and his 5,000 men surrendering to the Americans
-Major turning point in the war
-Led directly to US-french alliance
-could have been won by british but their mistakes cost them those victories
Iroquois Confederacy Pg. 138
-several leaders were pro-British, believing that the British would stem white movement onto native lands
-Confederacy declared it was neutral in 1776 but not all members were neutral
-Joseph and Mary brant were Mohawks of who persuaded their tribe to side with the British and also attracted support from Cayuga and Seneca
-only 3/6 tribes in the Confederation supported the British (Oneida and Tuscacora were pro-American and Onondaga remained divided)
-after Indians joined the British in raids on white settlements in New York (1778), retaliation for the attacks would destroy tribal settlements and cause many Iroquois to flee to Canada
Militia Diplomats Pg. 138
-before Declaration of independence, congress sent representatives (militia diplomats) to Europe to negotiate commercial treaties
-if America was to leave the British Empire, they needed new trading partners
-diplomats were inexperienced
-communication between congress and the diplomats was slow
The French Pg. 138-139
-most promising ally
-King Louis XVI and foreign minister Count de Vergennes were eager to see Britain lose part of its empire
-France would secretly begin to supply US with neccessary supplies although France would not provide the US with diplomatic recognition
-Franklin went to France (admired by all) and when news of the victory at Saratoga arrived, France would eventually recognize the US as a sovereign nation (2/6/1778)
-provided most of the US's money and munitions and provided a navy and expeditionary force
Female "Camp Followers"
(Concept) pg. 150
Since many husbands were leaving their families for war the wives and bhildren were in charge of farms and business. But some women decided to accompany their spouses and joing the army. At first they were not appreciated and were known to be disruptive, distracting, with their hair falling, brows beady with the heat, belongings slung over their shoulders and constantly seen chattering away. Though later they benefited from the presence of the women. They increased army morale and did things such as cooking, laundry, and nursing. Some women did not do these things nd instead dressed as men to fight and combat alongside the men.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It dissolved the colonies' ties with Britain,listed grievences against King George (the third),and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
*A government free from external control.
* the authority of a state to govern another state
*a nation's ruler or a reigning royal authority
An American that supported and favored the British side during the American Revolution.A supporter of traditional politics and social ways against the forces of reform;a political conservative. A tory was anyone who supported the British crown and the Royal prerogative against Parliment,and tended to support high church Anglicanism.
Articles of Confederation-1781(document)
Established before the exsistance of the United States, it served as our country's first constitution and called for unity among the 13 states,while allowing each state to remain independent. The articles failed,however, because the central government was too weak to fix the country's problems.The articles were replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States.
George Washington
*Led American army against the French in the French and Indian War.
*Part of the Second Continental Congress that appointed Washington as the commander and cheif of the Continental Army on June 15,1775. He led his ill trained and equiped men in the American Revolution against the British.
*Founding Father of the United States/First President of the United States