• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)


A nitrogen containing waste product

Amino acids

The building blocks of protein are bonded through the peptide bonds

Building blocks/peptide


Sucrose, Maltese, and lactose, called double sugars


Glucose is stored as this polysaccharide, also called animal starch


Classification of starch


Nondigestable polysaccharide found in plants


Classification of triglycerides and steriods

Essential amino acids

These amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must therefore be injested in the diet

Nonessential amino acids

Amino acids that can be synthesized by the body


A series of chemical reactions that build larger, more complex substances

Peptide bond

The amine group of value joins with the acid part of phenylalanine to form this


This series of anaerobic reactions occurs within the cytoplasm

Lactic acid

A consequence of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose


A catalyst

Ketone bonds

The rapid and incomplete breakdown of fatty acids yields these

Co2, water, and atp

The end products of the aerobic catabolism of glucose

Kerbs cycle

Series of aerobic chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria


The energy transfer molecule


Composed of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides


Most important monosaccharide os glucose used on synthesis of DNA and rna


Are double sugars broken down into monosaccharides


Is a polysaccharide. It is the storage form of glucose. Glycogen is stored primarily in the liver and skeletal muscle

Glucose anaerobically and aerobically

*Anaerobically, glucose is incompletely broken down ( glycolysis) into lactic acid and small amounts of ATP

*Aerobically, glucose is broken down completely ( glycolysis and citric avid cycle) into c02 and H2O and large amounts of energy (ATP)

Can be synthesized from nonglucose substances



*Are triglycerides, polysaccharides, and steriods

*A primary source of energy and a synthesis of membranes

How are lipids broken down?

*The long fatty acid chains are broken down into carbon units in the cytoplasm

* The small units are fed into the mitochondria where enzymes of the citric acid cycle help to catabolize them completely to CO2 and H2O, releasing large amounts of energy

Where can lipids be stored?

Lipids can be stored in adipose tissue as fat

What is protein composed of?

A series of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds in a specific sequence

How are proteins primarily used?

In the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, antibodies, plasma proteins, muscle proteins, hemoglobin, and cell membranes. Proteins are also used as fuel and raw materials for the making of glucose

How is protein metabolized?

In a similar manner to glucose. There is special handling of nitrogen by the urea cycle

Deoxyribonuclecic acid

DNA is the blue print of life

What is stored in the DNA?

Information concerning protein synthesis ( a series of genes forms a chromosome)

A nucleotide

Composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base. For DNA the sugar is dexoyribose and the bases are adenine, rhyming, cytosine, and guanine

How is DNA linked

Each strand of DNA is linked according to base pairings ( adenine links with thymine, cytosine links with guanine)

Where is the genetic code stored?

The genetic code is stored within the sequence of three bases along a strand of DNA

Ribonucleic acid

Similar structure to DNA

*Differences: the sugar is ribose

*Single stranded

*The bases are: adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine

Two forms of RNA

*Messager RNA: mRNA

*Transfer RNA: tRNA


The genetic code of DNA us transferred to RNA

How does RNA transfer the genetic code?

RNA transfers the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

RNA translation

The genetic code of the mRNA is read by the tRNA (attached to individual amino acids in the cytoplasm)

A peptide bond between each amino acid:

Is formed as the peptide chain grows along the ribosome. Then the chain is terminated

Protein synthesis 5 steps:


*RNA transfers the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm


*A peptide bond between each amino acid I'd formed as the peptide chain grows along the ribosome

*The protein chain is terminated