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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What age group is considered a toddler?
1-3 yr
What happens to the growth weight? how much do they grow?
Gain 5.5 to 7.5 inches and 9-11 pounds
•Higher energy expended for increased activity level
What is the estimated energy requirement for toddlers?
kcal/day = (89 x weight(kg)-100)+20
What are the various macronutrient requirements? fibre?
30%-40% of total kcal from fat
•1.1 grams of protein per kg body weight
•130 g carbohydrates per day
•19 grams fibre per day
Which micronutrients do toddlers need? What is the most common nutrient deficiency in young kids?
Ensure adequate intake of the micronutrients that should be obtained from fruits and vegetables, including:
•Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc
•Iron deficient anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children
How much fluid a day do toddlers need?
1.3 litres a day
What supplements should toddlers take? whats the limit of RDA?
Toddlers may need supplements, especially for fluoride
•Supplements should not exceed 100% RDA for any nutrient
What are ways to encourage nutritious food choices?
Toddlers have an innate ability to match their intake with their needs.
•Keeping a nutritious variety of foods available encourages a healthful diet.
•Food should not be forced on a child.
•Do not use bribery to encourage children to eat.

- make food fun to eat
Allergy concerns?
Continue to watch for food allergies
•Introduce one new food at a time
Vegetarian Families:
A diet including eggs and dairy can be a healthful diet
•A vegan diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals
What is the growth rate at 4-5 years
Growth rate continues to slow
•Will gain 3 –4 inches and 5 –6 pounds per year
What are the macronutrient needs of toddlers? fibre?
Total fat intake should gradually drop to a level closer to adult fat intake
•25%-35% of total energy from fat
•0.95 grams protein per kg body weight
•130 grams carbohydrate per day
•25 grams fibre per day
Vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables continue to be a concern
•Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc
•AI of calcium increases from that for toddlers
•RDAs for iron and zinc also increase
How much fluid?
1.7 L
May be recommended when particular food groups are not eaten regularly
•Supplements should be appropriate for the child’s age
What are some ways to continue to encourage healthy food choices
Parents can teach preschoolers about healthful food choices:
•Some foods “help us grow healthy and strong”
•Some foods are better used as occasional treats
When are toddlers at risk of being over weight ?
a BMI of or over the 85th percentiles
When are they overweight?
BMI of or above the 95th percentile
What risk does being overweight in child hood have?
being an overweight adult
What is the growth rate of school aged children?
Growth is slow and steady, at 2 to 3 inches per year
What changes abotu making food choices?
Children begin to make their own food choices
•Activity levels vary
What are the macronutrient needs of school aged children?
25%-35% of total energy from fat
•0.95 grams protein per kg body weight
•130 grams carbohydrates
•45%-60% of kcal from carbohydrates
•14 grams fibre per 1000 kcal per day
Micronutrient needs?
The need for most micronutrients increases slightly through age 8.
•Micronutrient needs rise sharply as children approach puberty.
•Calcium and iron are still very important
Fluid intakes? range?
Adequate Intake (AI) of fluids varies by age and gender, ranging from 1.7 liters to 2.4 litres per day
A vitamin/mineral supplement supplying no more than 100% of the daily values can be used.
Nutritious choices and influences in school aged kids:
Peer pressure can influence a child’s food choices.
•Healthy role models, such as athletes, can be used to encourage good choices.
•Involvement in food preparation encourages active role in health.
•Parents should continue as role models.
Obesity in school aged children: is it an epidemic? why? how to fix it?
Obesity is now epidemic among school-aged children in Canada
•Caused by eating too much and not enough physical activity
•Children should be very active for at least one hour per day.
How do other factors effect school aged children? such as puberty, body image, and selecting their own beverages?
Body image and appearance become more important to children as puberty approaches.
•Inadequate calcium intake can result as children make their own choices and may avoid milk in favour of other beverages
When is adolescence? what happens?
What is the growth rate in adolescence?
Growth spurts begin at age 10 to 11 for girls and 12 to 13 for boys
•An average 20%-25% increase in height is expected
•Weight and body composition also change
What are the Macronutrient needs for young adults? EER?
fat? carbs? protein? fibre?
Estimated energy requirements (EER) for adolescents is based on gender, age, activity level, height and weight
•25%-35% of total energy from fat
•45%-60% of kcal from carbohydrates
•0.85 gram protein / kg body weight
•26 grams of fibre per day
MIcronutrient needs?
Calcium intakes must be sufficient for achieving peak bone density(1300mg)
•Iron needs are relatively high (boys 11 mg, girls 15)
•Vitamin A is critical for supporting rapid growth and development (900 ug for boys, 700 ug girls)
Fluid requirements
The need to maintain fluid intake is increased by higher activity levels
•Boys: 3.3 litres/day
•Girls: 2.3 litres/day
multivitamin can be a safety net, but should not replace a healthful diet
What are the influences on adolescent food choices?
Peer influences and fast-paced lifestyle can lead adolescents to choose fast foods
•Parents can act as role models and keep healthful food choices available
•Adequate fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be encouraged
Nutrition related concerns? physical activity? disordered eating? drugs...
physical activity is very important in reducing obesity
•Disordered eating and eating disorders can begin in these years
•Cigarette smoking, alcohol, and illegal drugs can also have an impact on nutrition
What are the primary concerns for young and middle aged adults?
Maintenance of health
•Eating a balanced diet
•Staying physically active
•Reducing the risks of chronic diseases
Older adults are what age group?
65 plus
What are big changes to the body? (5)
•Decreased muscle and lean tissue
•Increased fat mass
•Decreased bone density
•Decreased immune function
•Impaired absorption of nutrients
What are the macronutrient needs of older adults?
Energy needs usually decrease due to reduced activity levels
•Recommendations for fat, carbohydrate, and proteins intakes are the same as for younger adults
•Older adults can consume slightly less fibre
What is the need for vitamin D?
10 ug per day 51-70. 15 ug 70 plus
Calcium needs?
1200 mg
Calcium and vitamin D requirements increase due to poor calcium absorption
•Iron needs decrease
•Zinc intake should be maintained for optimizing immune function
•Adequate intake of B-complex vitamins is a special concern
Fluid intake?
AI for fluid is the same as for younger adults:
•Men: 3.7 litres/day
•Women: 2.7 litres/day
•Older adults are especially susceptible to dehydration
Nutrition related concerns? chronic disease. illness, dental health, medications,
Many chronic diseases are more prevalent in overweight or obese adults
•Underweight may result from illness, disability, loss of sense of taste or smell, depression, social isolation
•Dental health issues may cause older adults to avoid meats, firm fruits and vegetables
Some medications can alter nutrient absorption or decrease appetite
•A balanced diet containing ample folate, vitamin B12, and macronutrients, may improve memory and decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia.