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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Initial Credibility
the credibility of a speaker before he or she speaks
Terminal Credibility
the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
Four basic methods of reasoning and how to use them
1) Reasoning from specific instances- progress from a number of facts-conclusion
2) Reasoning from principle- general principle to specific conclusion
3) Casual Reasoning- establish the relationship between cause and effect
4) Analogical Reasoning- a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first cause is true for the second
Derived Credibility
the credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech
Tips for using evidence (4)
1) Use specific evidence
2) Use novel evidence
3) Use from credible sources
4) Make clear the point of your evidence
Fallacies of reasoning (5)
1) Red-Herring
2) Ad Hominem
3) Either-or
4) Bandwagon
5) Slippery Slope
introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

Topic A is under discussion.
Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
Topic A is abandoned.
Ad Hominem
attacks the person rather than dealing with the issue
forces listeners to choose between 2 alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
assumes that because something is popular, it is good, correct, or desirable

Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection.
Therefore person P's claim X is false.
Slippery Slope
assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

Event X has occurred (or will or might occur).
Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.