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59 Cards in this Set

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developmental scientist

researchers who study the lifespan

lifespan development

the scientific study of human growth throughout life

child development

the study of a childhood and teenage years

Gerontology

the scientific study of aging

adult development

the scientific study of the adult part of life

normative transititons

predictable life changes that occur during development

non-normative transitions

unpredictable life changes that occur during development

contexts of development

fundemental markers: including cohort, socioeconomic status, cultural and gender, that shape how we develop throughout our lifespan

cohort

the age group with whom we travel through life

baby boom cohort

the huge age group born between 1946 and 1964

emerging adulthood

the phase of life that begins after high school, tapers off towards the late 20s, and is devoted to constructing an adult life

average life expectancy

a persons 50/50 chance at birth of living to a given age

20th century life expectancy revolution

The dramatic increase in average life expectancy that occurred during the first half of the both century in the developed world

maximun lifespan

the biological limit of the human life (105)

young-old

people in their 60 and 70s

old-old

people in their late 60s and older

social networking sites

internet sites whose goal is to forge personal connections between users

great recession of 2008

dramatic loss of jobs that began with the bursting of U.S. household bubble in late 2007

income inequality

the gap between the rich and the poor

socioeconomic status (ses)

a basic marker referring to the status on education-especially-income rungs

developed world

the most affluent countries in the world

developing world

the most impoverished countries in the world

collectivist cultures

Societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness over individual achievement

individualistic cultures

societies that prize independence, competition , and personal success

theory

any perpestive explaining why people act the way they do. allow us to predict behavior and also suggest how to intervene to improve behavior

nature

biological or genetic causes of development

nurture

enviromental causes of development

traditional behaviorism

the original behavior worldview that focused on charting and modifying objective visible behavior

opperant behaviorisn

the law of learning that determines an voluntary response because we are reinforced for acting the way we do

reinforcment

behavioral term for reward

cognitive behaviorism

emphasizes that people learn by watching others and that our thoughts about the reinforcers determine our behavior. these behaviorist focus on charting and modifying peoples thoughts

modeling

learning by watching or imitating others

self efficacy

according to cognitive behaviorism and internal belief on out competence that predicts whether we initiate activities or persist in the face of failures and predicts the goals we set

attachment theory
survival of human being closely connected to a caregiver during early childhood and being attached to a significant other during the other half of life
evolutionary psychology
highlighting the role that inborn species specific behaviors play in human development and life
behavioral genetics
determining the role that hereditary forces play in determining individual differences in behavior
twin study
designed to determine the genetic contribution of a given trait, that involves comparing identical twins with fraternal twins
adoption study
designed to determine the genetic contribution to a given trait that involved comparing adopted children with biological and adoptive parents
twin/adoptive study
comparing the similarities of the identical twin pairs adopted into different families to determine the genetic contribution to a given trait
evocative forces
that our genetic temperamental tendencies evoke or produce or evoke certain responcesfrom other people
directionality
the crucial principle that people affect one another or that interpersonal influences flow in both directions
active forces
that our genetic temperamental tendencies and predispositions cause us to actively choose to put ourselves into specific envioments
person-environment fit
the extent in which the environment is tailored in out biological tendencies and talents, in developing science fostering that fit between our talents and the wider world is an important goal
epigenetics
exploring how early life events alter of our DNA, producing lifelong changes in health and behavior
Erikson psychosocial tasks
each challenge we must face as we travel through the eight stages of lifespan

piagets cognitive developmental theory

from infancy to adolescence children progress through four qualitatively different stages of intellectual growth
assimulation

first step promoting mental growth, fitting environmental input into out existing capasites



accomodation
enlarging our mental capacities to fit input from the wider world
developmental systems perspective
outlook on development that stresses the need to embrace a variety of theories and the idea that all systems and processes interrelate
correlational study
a research strategy that involves relating two or more variables
representative sample
a group that reflects the characteristic of the overall population
naturalistic observation
a measurement strategy that involves directly watching and coding behaviors
self- report strategy
a measurement having people report on their feelings and activities through questionaries'
true experiment
can determine that something causes something else, involves random assigning and people to different treatments and then looking at the outcome
cross-sectional study
involves testing different age groups at the same time
longitudinal study
involves testing an age group repeatedly over many years
quantitative research
involves testing groups of people using numerical scales and statistics
qualitative research
involves interviewing people to obtain information that can not be quantified on a numerical scale