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79 Cards in this Set

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John Smith
-Saved the Jamestown colony from collapse in 1608 its first year of existence.
- Smith’s initiatives improved sanitation, hygiene, and organized work gangs to gather food and build shelters, leading to a drop in death rates in Jamestown colony.
-Founded May 14, 1607. It is the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States of America. Founded by the London Company.
Joint Stock Company
- it is a financial contribution between shareholders and they are free to transfer their ownership interest at any time by selling their stock holding to others.
Indentured Servant
-a worker typically a laborer's under a contract to an employer for a fixed period of time, typically three to even seven years in exchange for their transportation, food, clothing, lodging, and other necessities.
-Many servants died before they could even live to be free.
-A liberal Protestant group that sought to “purify” the Church of England from within.
-Persecuted for their beliefs, many Puritans fled to the New World in the early 1600s, where they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in present-day Boston.
-The Puritans placed heavy emphasis on family values and strict morality.
-They were religiously persecuted, yet they were not religiously tolerant.
John Winthrope
-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
-Winthrop was instrumental in forming the colony’s government and shaping its legislative policy.
-He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a “city upon a hill” from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
King Phillips War
-Indian resistance wore down due to food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties
-Spring 1675 Metacom and allies used guerrilla war against outlying New England colonies lasting over a year
The Headright System
-A system established by the Virginia Company as an incentive to settlement, each settler received a "head right" of land for paying his own way or bringing others.
Bacon's Rebellion
-Nathaniel Bacon led frontier servants, small farmers, and slaves against Virginia's wealthy planters and political leaders that resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676.
- Bacon also conducted assaults against peaceful Native Americans (he claimed they were "all alike").
William Penn
-Penn received rights in 1681 to a tract stretching from Delaware
River westward.
- He encouraged the settlement of the area by writing glowing descriptions and offering religious liberty and aid to immigrants. Philadelphia (City of Brotherly Love) grew as a result of his efforts. -Penn learned the language of the Delaware Native Americans, and the settlers lived among the tribe peacefully for over fifty years. Penn, a Quaker, lived in the colony for only four years before returning to England.
- A group favored individual inspiration and interpretation.
-They gave up formal ceremonies and a formal ministry, refused to offer any social ranking, and advocated a peaceful coexistence with all.
-They were often subjected to intense persecution but did not retaliate.
- Religious tolerance, equality of the sexes, and full participation of women in religious affairs were also part of their tolerance for others.
-An economic system in which economic activity is closely regulated by the government to maximize profits for the king and ruling class.
-Under this system the colony existed for the good of the mother country. Generally the colony's role was to provide raw materials (especially products that the mother country could produce itself) and serve as a market for goods produced in the mother country.
-Unlike present day capitalism, mercantilism is government run and non-competitive.
Navigation Acts
-The 1633 Navigation Act required that all goods going to the British colonies had to be routed through England.
- Parliament passed a restriction in 1651 that all goods imported into either England or the colonies had to be on English ships.
-European goods were excluded.
-In 1660 new requirements were added: ship's crews had to be three-quarters English and certain goods were to go only to England or the colonies. These included tobacco, cotton, indigo, ginger, sugar, and later rice, hemp, masts/spars, and furs.
Roger William
-Williams arrived in Massachusetts's in 1631.
-Allowed to escape by Governor Winthrop, Williams established Providence, the first permanent Rhode Island settlement in 1636 and the first settlement in the New World to legislate freedom of religion.
-His work created a society that lived up to his principles of religious freedom and government based on the consent of the people.
Anne Hutchinson
-Hutchinson challenged Puritan leaders and beliefs by advocating a belief in the sanctity of one's faith and God's grace.
- After a two-day trial before judges and ministers, Hutchinson was banished in 1638 to an island south of Providence, Rhode Island. She died in 11644, massacred in a Native American attack.
John Coodes
-Born in England about 1648.
-He attended Oxford University when he was only 16 years old and in 1669, Coode became an Anglican priest. In 1672, he journeyed to Maryland.
-Rebellion is a refusal of obedience or order.
- It may, therefore, be seen as encompassing a range of behaviors from civil disobedience and mass nonviolent resistance, to violent and organized attempts to destroy an established authority such as a government.
Their capital was in Cuzco.
They lived on highlands and mountains.
Empire consisted over a million individuals.
Arguably the most advanced society of the Americas before Colombus arrived in America.
They had their religion that worshiped the sun god.
Made subject lands pay tribute to Tenochtitlan's.
Technocthlian wa the capital of the Aztec's.
Had a fully developed language.
Decentralized with small city states.
Invented a calendar
Chaco Canyon
Chaco Canyon was the center of Anasazi civilization, its many large pueblos probably serving as administrative and ceremonial centers for a widespread population.
Woodland Indians
Spread across Northwest Georgia, growing crops in our fertile valleys and hunting the plentiful game.
Mobile Societies
a `mobile' society creates a part of its wealth from processes that do not depend on the territory: a bottle making factory uses raw materials that come from the ground, whether they be oil for energy or sand for glass. In addition, however, the factory `adds value' to the raw materials by making the bottles.
Leif Erikson
Was a Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America.
Prince Henry The Navigator
He was a big factor of why Portuguese began with a head start with exploration.
Christopher Columbus
He was a navigator and colonizer of the Americas although not first in arriving in the Americas.
Ferdinand Magellan
The first person to ever have a a crew that circumnavigated the globe.
The Conquistadors
the term widely used to refer to the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th through the 19th centuries following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The leaders of the conquest of the Aztec Empire were Hernán Cortés and Pedro de Alvarado. Francisco Pizarro led the conquest of the Incan Empire.
Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of Peru.
Pueblo Revolt
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Pope's Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.
Mestizo is a Spanish term that was used refer to people of mixed European and Native-Indigenous ancestry.
John Cabot
John Cabot was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of North America is known to be the first European voyage to the continent since Norse exploration of the Americas in the early eleventh century.
Richard Hakluyt
Richard Hakluyt was an English writer. He is principally remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his wittings
Doctrine of Predestination
A Calvinistic principle/belief, that one before was born was known where they would go, either heaven or hell.
The English Reformation
The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
John Calvin
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
Puritan Separatists
A group favored individual inspiration and interpretation.
-They gave up formal ceremonies and a formal ministry, refused to offer any social ranking, and advocated a peaceful coexistence with all.
-They were often subjected to intense persecution but did not retaliate.
- Religious tolerance, equality of the sexes, and full participation of women in religious affairs were also part of their tolerance for others.
Elizabeth the I
1558-1503 Ruled England and was known as Virgin Queen Gloriana
Coureurs De Bois
coureurs de bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities
New Amsterdam
it was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherlands (what is now new York).
West India Company
was a charter company of Dutch merchants that had a trade monopoly with Asia. it was also known as the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC.
Sir Walter Raleigh
He was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer largely known for popularizing tobacco in England.In 1584, he dispatched an expedition to explore the eastern coast of North America for an appropriate location.
was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh. Between 1585 and 1587, several groups attempted to establish a colony, but either abandoned the settlement or died.
James I
He then ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain.
It is the first permanent English settlement in the USA. it is located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia colony and was founded on May 14, 1607.
John smith
He was a leader of the Virginia colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
Lord Delawar
was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. senate, all later called "Delaware", were named.
upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the U.S. until it gave way to cotton.
Virginia Company
consisted of two companies, the "Virginia Company of London" and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth". they were Join stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
Theocratic Society
Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler or in a higher sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided.
Pequot War
The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1634-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies with Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) against the Pequot tribe. The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day Southern New England.
The Narragansetts
Narragansett, a dialect of the Massachusett language Rohde Island and Providence
English Civil War
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies, also known as the Bread Colonies or the Breadbasket Colonies for the region's production of wheat, grain, and oats,[1][2] were one area of the Thirteen British Colonies in pre-Revolutionary War Northern America
William penn
was a English real state entrepreneur, a philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania. he was an early champion of democracy and religious freedom.
Charter of Liberties:
was a written proclamation by Henry the I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in the year 1100.It sought to bind the King to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles.
The Black Codes
were laws passed on the state and local level in the U.S. (mainly in south) that limited the rights of African Americans.
Holy experiment
it was an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution.
California 1760's
California was explored by the Spanish and English from the early 1500s to the mid-1700s. In the 18th century, Spanish soldiers and missionaries traveled to north California and build missionaries, towns and forts.
James Oglethorpe
he was the founder of the colony of Georgia. he was called a philanthropist and for his benevolence, including helping children and defending seamen against impressment
Sir Edmund Andros
: was an early colonial english governor in north America and the head of the Dominion of New England. In 1674 he became governor of the province of New York.
Glorious Revolution
it was also called the revolution of 1688. it was the overthrow of King James II of England in 1688.
propietary rule
The British colonies of North America were founded as either proprietary colonies or as corporate colonies. A proprietary colony was a gift made by the king to a trading company or an individual, who then privately owned it. This type of colony was administered by a colonial governor, who was elected by the owner or owners and supposed to serve in their best interest.
. is the name of a Virginia Indian tribe. It is estimated that there were about 14,000-21,000 of these native Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607. They were also known as Virginia Algonquians, as they spoke an eastern-Algonquian language known as Powhatan
tolertation act
.The Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for trinitarian Christians. Passed on April 21, 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world
plymouth plantation
Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. Written between 1620 and 1647, the journal describes the story of the Pilgrims from 1608, when they settled in the Netherlands through the 1620 Mayflower voyage, until the year 1647. The book ends with a list, written in 1650, of Mayflower passengers and what happened to them
mayflower compact
.The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom. It was signed on November 11, 1620
colonial currency
Early American currency went through several stages of development in the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States in 1776, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments sometimes issued paper money to facilitate economic activity. The British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751, 1764, and 1773 that regulated colonial paper money.
cambridge agreement
.The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Agreement led directly to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts.
church of england (anglican)
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national and regional churches
covenant theater
.a theater in which an agreement is formed with god through religious beliefs
halfway covenant
The Half-Way Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose
thomas hooker
.(July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. Hooker also had a role in creating the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut", one of the world's first written constitutions
saybrook platform
.Saybrook Platform refers to conservative religious proposals adopted at Saybrook, Connecticut in September 1708.
jointstock company
.financed jamestown
.Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered an archetypical Cavalier
john locke
29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.