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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Life?

All living things

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

-Is the common set of features all living organisms share

- is the genetic "blue print" for life

*each species' genetic instructions are coded in sequence of 4 nucleotides along DNA strand

*same language for all species UNIVERSAL CODE!

*evidence all life is related

-nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain sugar deoxyribose

The Characteristics of Life


-Energy Use

-Regulate internal environment

-Maintain, grow, develop, and reproduce

-Respond to environmental stimuli

-Living tings evolve overtime in response to their environment


-Life is organized in hierarchical sequences of increasing complexity

-organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cells, organelles, atom

Cell Theory

-The basic unit of life that displays all the properties of life is a cell

-Cell is the simplest form of life

Emergent Property of Life

-New properties emerge from the complex organization of a system, such as a cell

-The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

Energy Use

-The natural tendency of matter is towards disorder

-living systems acquire and use energy to maintain their highly organized state

-ex. metabolism and plants use photosynthesis


The sum of all chemical processes that take place in the cell that acquire and use energy

Regulate internal environment

-this requires a separation from the non-living world

-for metabolic processes to function normally, living things need to keep themselves stable in temperature, moisture level, chemistry, etc.

*for any chemical reaction you nee enzymes (type of protein) these are extremely affected by temperature



-the ability to maintain internal constancy (i.e., to stay the same)

-is the means of a self-regulating mechanism

Maintain, Grow, Develop, and Reproduce

-vital if a population of organisms is to survive more than one generation


Respond to environmental stimuli

-reaction may be immediate or longer

*ex. touch a hot burner you pull your hand away

*ex. plants, when leaves change is a reaction to the length of the day

Living things evolve over time in response to their environment

-evolve means to change, happens in populations over many generations

-process of natural selection

-ex. antibiotic resistance


-is a way of knowing

-does not accumulate absolute truths, only levels of confidence

-is empirical based on observation, measurement, and experiment

-seeks natural causes for natural phenomena

-Skepticism is vital to the process of science

-is objective

A scientific statement must be...

testable and reproducible

Discovery Science

-scientists use observation and measurement to describe some aspect of the world

-use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions (specific>general)


-A generalization made from a large body of observation and experiments that best explains that body of data

*are made with inductive reasoning

*in biology theory is the highest level of confidence

*no laws in biology

Hypothesis-based science

-scientists attempt to explain observations from discovery science by testing hypotheses (observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, test the prediction, and results supports or falsify hypothesis)

*use deductive reasoning


-an educated preliminary explanation to a scientific question; not supported by experimentation

-tentative observation on what will happen (educated guess)

-a good hypothesis makes predictions that can be tested

Deductive Reasoning

(IF...THEN...)flows from general to specific premise

*use to make predictions

control group

-sample that goes through all the steps of an experiment but does not contain the variable being tested; a standard against which the results of an experiment are checked


experimental group

-the sample that goes through all the steps of the experiment and does contain the experimental variable being tested


the scientific study of life


process, usually occurring within chloroplasts, that use solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate


genetic change in a species over time, resulting in the development of genetic and phenotypic differences that are the basis of natural selection; descent of organisms from a common ancestor

natural selection

mechanism of evolutionary change caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment

scientific method

process by which scientists formulate a hypothesis, gather by observation and experimentation, and come to a conclusion


initial step in the scientific method that often involves the recording of data from an experiment or natural event

inductive reasoning

using specific observations and the process of logic and reasoning to arrive at a general scientific principle


step of the scientific process that follows the formulation of a hypothesis and assists in creating the experimental design

experimental design

methodology by which an experiment will seek to support the hypothesis

experimental or independent variable

factor of the experiment being tested

responding or dependent variable

result or change that occurs when an experimental variable utilized in an experiment