Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/155

Click to flip

155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the cranial nerve (VI) that supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball (lateral movement)
abducent nerve
the cranial nerve (XI) that provides motor innervation to the muscles of the soft palate and the pharynx and to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
accessory nerve
a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system
acetylcholine
an enzyme that rapidly destroys acetylcholine once it has reached the target tissue
acetylcholinesterase
electrical signals passing along nerve fibers
action potentials
endocrine glands located on the top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
adrenal glands
description of a neuron that secretes the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
adrenergic
a receptor stimulated by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
adrenergic receptor
nerves that carry impulses from the body to the brain and provide input to the brain about sensations, also called sensory nerves
afferent nerves
one of two adrenergic receptors classified into two structural and functional categories, then subdivided again into alpha-1 and alpha-2
alpha receptor
fibers that carry sensory information from the periphery to the brain also called ascending fibers
afferent tracts
ascending fiber tract that carries information to the brain about light touch, pressure, tickling/itching sensations
anterior spinothalamic tract
the middle membrane of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid
fibers that carry sensory information from the periphery to the brain, also called afferent tracts
ascending fibers
several structures located throughout the brain stem that are responsible for maintenance of consciousness
ascending reticular activating system
a division of the nervous system that operates without conscious control and regulates the function of internal organs, glans, and smooth muscle
autonomic nervous system
one of the major nerves emanating from the brachial plexus, it supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles, enabling arm abduction and lateral rotation
axillary nerve
a projection from a neuron that makes connections with adjacent cells
axon
structures located deep within the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain that play an important role in coordination of motor movements and posture
basal ganglia
a common class of cardiac drugs that blocks beta effects, causing a decrease in the workload of the heart by reducing the speed of contraction, as well as reducing blood pressure
beta-blocker
one of two adrenergic receptors classified into two structural and functional categories, further subdivided into beta-1 and beta-2
beta receptors
the plexus of spinal nerves that consists of nerves C5 to T1 and innervates the shoulder and upper extremity
brachial plexus
part of the central nervous system, located within the cranium containing billions of neurons that serve a variety of vital functions
brain
the midbrain, medulla and pons collectively
brain stem
numerous individual nerve roots that extend from the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebrae
cuada equina
system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
one of three bands of nerve fibers through which the cerebellum communicates with other regions of the CNS
cerebellar peduncles
the region of the brain essential in coordinating muscle movements of the body
cerebellum
the largest portion of the brain, it controls the higher thought process, also called the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
fluid produces in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
the largest portion of the brain, it controls the higher though process, also called the cerebral cortex
cerebrum
description of a neuron that secretes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
cholinergic
specialized cells within hollow areas in the ventricles of the brain that produce CSF
choroid plexus
a major nerve of the leg, providing sensation to the lateral leg and dorsum of the foot and motor activity to the hip extensors, knee flexors, ankle dorsiflexors, and to extensors
common peroneal nerve
ascending fiber tracts that coordinate movements, especially of the hands
corticospinal tracts
the 12 pairs of nerves that arise from the base of the brain
cranial nerves
an agent that blocks transmission of neural motor impulses at the neuromuscular junction
curare
a component and branch of the common peroneal nerve that innervates the muscles that dorsiflex the ankle and extend the toes
deep peroneal nerve
a projection from a neuron that makes connections with an adjacent cell
dendrite
an area of skin supplied by a given spinal nerve
dermatome
fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system, also called efferent tracts
descending fibers
the part of the brain between the brain stem and the cerebrum that includes the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
diencephalon
one of two roots of a spinal nerve that passes posteriorly into the spinal cord and contains the dorsal root ganglion
dorsal root
a ganglion of the dorsal root of each spinal nerve
dorsal root ganglion
the outermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord, it is the toughest membrane
dura mater
the nerves that carry commands from the brain to peripheral muscles, also called motor nerves
efferent nerves
fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system, also called descending fibers
efferent tracts
part of the diencephalon with uncertain functions
epithalamus
the cranial nerve (VII) that supplies motor activity to all muscles of facial expression, the sense of taste to the anterior two thirds of the tongue, and cutaneous sensations to the external ear, tongue and palate
facial nerve
the branch of the lumbosacral plexus that innervates the muscles that flex the hip and extend the knee
femoral nerve
a withdrawal reflex in the flexor muscles of the limbs that contract in response to an unpleasant stimulus
flexor reflex
a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord exits the brain
foramen magnum
the portion of the brain that is important in voluntary motor actions and personality traits
frontal lobe
collections of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS
ganglia
a separation between two nerves (preganglionic and postganglionic neurons) in a series between the CNS and the organs innervated
gnaglionic synapse
the cranial nerve (IX) that supplies motor fibers to the pharyngeal muscle, providing taste sensation to the posterior portion of the tongue, and carrying parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland
glossopharyngeal nerve
the numerous folds in the cerebrum, which greatly increase the surface area of the cortex
gyri
the cranial nerve (XII) that provides motor function to the muscles of the tongue and throat
hypoglossal nerve
the most inferior portion of the diencephalon, it is responsible for control of many bodily functions, including the heart rate, digestion, sexual development, temperature regulation, emotion, hunger, thirst, and sleep cycle
hypothalamus
a short canal through which auditory and facial nerves pass
internal auditory meatus
opening between successive vertebrae through which nerves exit the vertebral column
intervertebral foramen
ascending fiber tracts that carry information to the brain about pain and temperature
lateral spinothalamic tracts
structures within the cerebrum and diencephalon that influence emotions, motivation, mood and sensations of pain and pleasure
limbic system
subdivisions within each hemisphere of the cerebrum, each is named for the bone of the skull that overlies it
lobes
the crevasse that separates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum
longitudinal fissure
a needle insertion into the vertebral canal to obtain a specimen of CSF
lumbar puncture
a combination of the lumbar plexus, the sacral plexus and the coccygeal root
lumbosacral plexus
the nerve in the brachial plexus that innervates the pronator muscles of the forearm, as well as those that flex the wrist, fingers, and thumb
median nerve
the inferior portion of the midbrain, which serves as a conduction pathway for both ascending and descending nerve tracts
medulla
a set of three tough membranes, the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater that encloses the entire brain and spinal cord
meninges
an inflammation of the meninges and CSF, usually caused by infection
meningitis
nerves that carry commands from the brain to the muscle, also called efferent nerves
motor nerves
receptors at the target tissue that are stimulated by acetylcholine and can also be stimulated in the laboratory by the compound extracted from muscarine mushrooms
muscarinic receptors
a nerve in the upper extremity that innervates muscles that flex the shoulder and elbow
musculocutaneous nerve
a membrane formed by Schwann cells, which cover the axons of certain neurons
myelin sheath
an axon surrounded by a membrane sheath produced by Schwann cells
myelinated nerves
nervous tissue that connects the nervous system with body parts or organs
nerve
groups of nerve cells that are bundled together
nerve fibers
specialized tissue that conducts electrical impulses between the brain and the rest of the body
nervous system
the target tissues of autonomic nervous system
neuroeffector cells
one of two basic types of neural tissue, neuroglia support, protect, defend and aid in the repair of injury of neural tissue
neuroglia
a group of drugs delivered from curare that are used in anesthesia to induce muscle relaxation
neuromuscular blocker
the receptor on the muscle for nerve impulses
neuromuscular junction
cells that transmit nervous system impulses
neurons
chemicals produced by the body that stimulate electrical reactions in adjacent neurons
neurotransmitters
receptors in the postganglionic neuron that can be stimulated in the laboratory by the alkaloid nicotine
nicotinic receptors
regions between individual Schwaan cells in myelinated neurons, between which action potentials jump
nodes of ranvier
a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system
norepinephrine
a nerve emanating from the lumbosacral plexus that innervates muscles that adduct the thigh and rotate in medially
obturator nerve
the portion of the brain that is responsible for the processing of visual information
occipital lobe
the cranial nerve (III) that innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lid
oculomotor nerve
the portion of the olfactory nerve formed by the olfactory tract that lies on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and is penetrated by nerve fibers that provide information about smell to the nose
olfactory bulb
the cranial nerve (I) that transmits information about the sense of smell
olfactory nerve
the part of the olfactory nerve that arises at the base of the brain
olfactory tract
a continuation of the optic nerve, which forms and X under the hypothalamus
optic chiasma
the opening through which the optic nerves pass to reach each eyeball
optic foramina
the cranial nerve (II) that transmits visual information to the brain
optic nerve
the parts of the optic nerve that arise at the base of the brain, forming the optic chiasma
optic tracts
the part of the autonomic nervous system that relaxes the body
parasympathetic nervous tissue
a drug that blocks acetylcholine at the neuroeffector synapse
parasympathetic-blocking drug
the portion of the brain that is the site for reception and evaluation of most sensory information, except smell, hearing and vision
parietal lobe
nerves that arise from the different plexuses to branch and supply motor function and sensation to many areas of the body
peripheral nerves
the portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves that extend from the CNS to peripheral structures outside the CNS
peripheral nervous system
a drug that blocks acetylcholine at the neuroeffector synapse
parasympathetic- blocking drug
the portion of the brain that is the site for reception and evaluation of most sensory information, except smell, hearing and vision
parietal lobe
nerves that arise from the different plexuses to branch and supply motor function and sensation to many areas of the body
peripheral nerves
the portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves that extend from the CNS to peripheral structures outside the CNS
peripheral nervous system
the innermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord, it rests directly on the brain and spinal cord
pia mater
part of the epithalamus in the diencephalon
pineal body
an organized intermingling formed by several nerves
plexus
the portion of the brainstem that lies below the midbrain and contains nerve fibers that affect sleep and respiration
pons
the space behind the knee
popliteal fossa
the second of the two nerves, separated by a ganglionic synapse, in a series between the CNS and the organs that are innervated
postganglionic neuron
the end of the nerve where electrical impulses are received from the synaptic cleft
presynaptic terminal
information about the body's position and of its parts in relation to itself, to one another, and to the pull of gravity
proprioception
one of the major nerves in the upper extremity, it supplies muscles that extend the elbow, supinate the forearm, and extend the wrist, fingers and thumbs
radial nerve
ascending fiber tracts that are involved in involuntary body movements
reticulospinal tracts
a small nerve
rootlet
nervous tissue that helps from the myelin sheath around certain neurons
Schwaan cells
the longest peripheral nerve in the body, formed by the combination of the common peroneal nerve and tibial nerve
sciatic nerve
pain and muscle weakness that travels from the back, into the buttocks, and along the leg into the foot as a result of irritation of a lumbar spinal nerve root
sciatica
nerves that carry impulses from the body to the brain and provide input to the brain about sensations that are felt, also called afferent nerves
sensory nerves
the part of the central nervous system that arise from numerous rootlets along the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord
spinal cord
nerves in the peripheral nervous system that arise from numerous rootlets along the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord
spinal nerves
automatic reactions to stimuli that occur without conscious though
spinal reflex arcs
a needle insertion into the vertebral canal to obtain a specimen of CSF
spinal tap
ascending fiber tract that carries information regarding body position (proprioception) to the cerebellum
spinocerebellar tract
a disruption of the circulation to the brain, causing brain damage and abnormal neurologic findings
stroke
a hemorrhage between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater
subarachnoid hemorrhage
the space located between the pia mater and arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space
a layer of gray matter located in the midbrain
substantia nigra
the part of the diencephalon that is involved in controlling motor functions
subthalamus
grooves located between the gyri in the cerebrum
sulci
the nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles of foot eversion
superficial peroneal nerve
the muscles that controls the downward gaze of the eyeball
superior oblique muscle
the part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the body's response to shock and stress
sympathetic pathway
a gap between nerve cells across which nervous stimuli are transmitted
synapse
the space between neurons where electrical impulses trigger the release of neurotransmitters, which in turn stimulate an electrical reaction in adjacent neurons
synaptic cleft
vesicles that contain neurotransmitters
synaptic vessels
the portion of the brain that plays an important role in hearing and memory
temporal lobe
the part of the diencephalon that processes most sensory input and influences mood and general body movements, especially those associated with fear or rage
thalamus
the nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles that extend the hip and flex, plantar flex the ankle, and flex the toes
tibial nerve
pathways within the spinal cord that contain nerves
tracts
an episode of neurologic impairment that lasts less than 24 hours and serves as a warning sign of an impending stroke
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
the cranial nerve (V) that supplies sensation t the scalp, forehead, face and lower jaw and innervates the muscles of mastication, the throat and the inner ear
trigeminal nerve
the cranial nerve (IV) that innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eyeball, which allows a downward gaze
trochlear nerve
the nerve in the arm that innervates muscles that flex the wrist and fingers and abducts the fingers and thumb
ulnar nerve
a neuron with no myelin sheath or white matter
unmyelinated axon
the cranial nerve (X) that provides motor functions to the soft palate, pharynx and larynx and carries taste bud fibers from the posterior tongue, sensory fibers from the inferior pharynx, larynx, thoracic, and abdominal organs, and parasympathetic fibers to thoracic and abdominal organs
vagus nerve
one of two roots of a spinal nerve that is found from six to eight rootlets
ventral root
specialized hollow areas in the brain
ventricles
the bony canal formed by vertebrae that houses and protects the spinal cord
vertebral canal
the cranial nerve (VIII) that passes through the internal auditory meatus and transmits information important to the sense of hearing and balance
vestibulocochlear nerve
ascending fiber tracts that are involved in involuntary body movements
vestibulospinal tracts
bundles of myelinated nerves
white matter