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26 Cards in this Set

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civil rights
policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
equal protection of the laws
part of the Fourteenth Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people; equal protection of life, liberty, and property for all
The court has ruled that most classifications that are reasonable-that bear a rational relationship to some legitimate governmental purpose-are constitutional
Racial and ethnic classifications are inherently suspect, gender classifications are moderate
Scott v. Sandford
The 1857 Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed o rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories; this decision invalidated the Missouri Compromise
Thirteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbad slavery and involuntary servitude
Plessy v. Ferguson
An 1896 Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional
Brown v. Board of Education
(Heard by Chief Justice Earl Warren) The 1954 Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation in Topeka, Kansas, was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the U.S.
de jure
by law
de facto
in reality
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made racial discrimination against any group illegal in places of public accomodation
Forbade job discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or gender
Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to monitor and enforce protections against job discrimination
Strengthened voting rights legislation
Authorized the U.S. Justice Department to initiate lawsuits to desegregate public schools and facilities
extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment
grandfather clause
exempted persons whose grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1860 from taking the tests
poll taxes
small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most southern states to exclude African Americans from voting
White primary
One of the means used to discourage African american voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared White primaries unconstitutional in 1944
Twenty-Fourth Amendment
declared poll taxes void in 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered, and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically
Korematsu v. United States
A 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II
Nineteenth Amendment
adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
a constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures
Alice Paul
author of the Equal Rights Amendment
Betty Friedan
author of The Feminine Mystique
Reed v. Reed
The landmark case in 1971 in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination. The Court ruled that any "arbitrary" gender-based classification violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Craig v. Boren
In this 1976 ruling, the Supreme Court established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination
comparable worth
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
a law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment
affirmative action
a policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group
the goal is to move beyond equal opportunity to equal results
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
a 1978 Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race
UC Davis could view race as one element that is weighed fairly against other elements in the selection process but cannot set aside a quota of spots for a particular group