Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Fertility (statistical) or fecundity (biological)

Ability to bear children

Infertility (statistical) or infecundity (biological)

Unable to bear children (diagnosed after 1 year of unprotected intercourse)


Reduced level of fertility characterized by miscarriages, sperm abnormalities, infrequent ovulation


Loss of conception in the first 20 weeks (5 months) of pregnancy; due to fetus defect, infection, or uterine defect

What risks occur when mother has underweight BMI?

<18.5 BMI

Pre-term delivery

Infant death

What risks occur when mother has overweight or obese BMI?

25.5-29.9 BMI


Gestational diabetes

(Larger babies)

Post-term delivery

Complicated delivery

What risks occur when mother has iron deficiency?

Pre-term delivery

Iron deficient newborn

What risks occur when mother has folate deficiency?

Neural tube defects- connects brain and spinal cord; defects include spina bifida, anencephaly


Human becomes biologically able to reproduce

Main difference between men and women

Women are born with 7million immature ova (eggs); 400-500 ova will mature and be released

Men produce sperm starting at puberty; decreases at 35 but continues production until old age

How are chromosomes damaged in sex cells?




2 phases of menstrual cycle (and their major hormones)

Follicular phase-ovum and sperm growth and maturation (GnRH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone)

Luteal phase-after ovulation (egg release) stimulates menstrual flow (decrease in estrogen and progesterone)

Role of estrogen

Stimulates vascularity within uterus


Prepares uterus for fertilized ovum

Increases vascularity of endometrium (mucous membrane lining of the uterus)

Stimulates cell division in fertilized ovum

Sources of infertility





Structural damage

Chromosome damage

Malnutrition sources of infertility

Undernutrition-small infants; fertility returns when nutrition improves

Body fat-low or high body fat (<20 or >30 BMI) alters hormone (leptin and estrogen) distribution resulting in amenorrhea (peroids stop), anovulatory cycles (irregular period cycles)

Adverse effects of high physical activity

Delayed puberty

Absent or irregular periods related to calorie deficiency

Reduced estrogen and bone density

Oxidative stress in men causes

Decrease in sperm motility

Reduces sperm's ability to fuse with egg

Oxidative stress in women causes

Underdeveloped eggs and follicules

Egg will not plant to uterine wall

Specific nutrients needed for fertility

Antioxidants-vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, selenium protects reproductive cells

Zinc for men-reduces oxidative stress, testosterone synthesis, sperm maturation

Low-fat, high fiber diet linked to reduced estrogen levels and irregular periods

Soy (isoflavones)-decreases gonaotrophins, estrogen, and progesterone

Caffeine reduces conception

Iron for women-adequate pre-pregnancy iron increases fertility

Alcohol can decrease hormone levels or disrupt cycles

Folate-helps with DNA and RNA synthesis, cell division (inadequate pre-pregnancy intake causes neural tube defects like spina bifida, anencephaly) found in dark leafy greens, fruit, nuts, beans, dairy, meat, eggs, seafood, grain (enriched)