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20 Cards in this Set

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Fertility (statistical) or fecundity (biological)

Ability to bear children

Infertility (statistical) or infecundity (biological)

Unable to bear children (diagnosed after 1 year of unprotected intercourse)

Subfertility

Reduced level of fertility characterized by miscarriages, sperm abnormalities, infrequent ovulation

Miscarriage

Loss of conception in the first 20 weeks (5 months) of pregnancy; due to fetus defect, infection, or uterine defect

What risks occur when mother has underweight BMI?

<18.5 BMI


Pre-term delivery


Infant death

What risks occur when mother has overweight or obese BMI?

25.5-29.9 BMI


Hypertension


Gestational diabetes


(Larger babies)


Post-term delivery


Complicated delivery

What risks occur when mother has iron deficiency?

Pre-term delivery


Iron deficient newborn

What risks occur when mother has folate deficiency?

Neural tube defects- connects brain and spinal cord; defects include spina bifida, anencephaly

Puberty

Human becomes biologically able to reproduce

Main difference between men and women

Women are born with 7million immature ova (eggs); 400-500 ova will mature and be released



Men produce sperm starting at puberty; decreases at 35 but continues production until old age

How are chromosomes damaged in sex cells?

Radiation


Oxidation


Aging

2 phases of menstrual cycle (and their major hormones)

Follicular phase-ovum and sperm growth and maturation (GnRH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone)



Luteal phase-after ovulation (egg release) stimulates menstrual flow (decrease in estrogen and progesterone)

Role of estrogen

Stimulates vascularity within uterus

Progesterone

Prepares uterus for fertilized ovum


Increases vascularity of endometrium (mucous membrane lining of the uterus)


Stimulates cell division in fertilized ovum

Sources of infertility

Malnutrition


Contraceptives


Stress


Infection


Structural damage


Chromosome damage

Malnutrition sources of infertility

Undernutrition-small infants; fertility returns when nutrition improves


Body fat-low or high body fat (<20 or >30 BMI) alters hormone (leptin and estrogen) distribution resulting in amenorrhea (peroids stop), anovulatory cycles (irregular period cycles)


Adverse effects of high physical activity

Delayed puberty


Absent or irregular periods related to calorie deficiency


Reduced estrogen and bone density

Oxidative stress in men causes

Decrease in sperm motility


Reduces sperm's ability to fuse with egg

Oxidative stress in women causes

Underdeveloped eggs and follicules


Egg will not plant to uterine wall

Specific nutrients needed for fertility

Antioxidants-vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, selenium protects reproductive cells


Zinc for men-reduces oxidative stress, testosterone synthesis, sperm maturation


Low-fat, high fiber diet linked to reduced estrogen levels and irregular periods


Soy (isoflavones)-decreases gonaotrophins, estrogen, and progesterone


Caffeine reduces conception


Iron for women-adequate pre-pregnancy iron increases fertility


Alcohol can decrease hormone levels or disrupt cycles


Folate-helps with DNA and RNA synthesis, cell division (inadequate pre-pregnancy intake causes neural tube defects like spina bifida, anencephaly) found in dark leafy greens, fruit, nuts, beans, dairy, meat, eggs, seafood, grain (enriched)