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28 Cards in this Set

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Describe origin and pathway of oxytocin.
oxytocin (and ADH) are synth by the hypothalamus, and travels to the posteior pituitary (neural) via nerve axons, and then released into systemic circulation.
T or F. ADH is released into the hypophyseal portal system into the pituitary gland.
F. Antidiuretic hormone is released into the pituitary via nerve axons.
what hormones are produced by the hypothalamus? Where do they go?
oxytocin and ADH --> posterior pituitary

releasing hormones --> anterior pit
- GH
- GnRH

Inhibitory hormones --> ant pit
- somatostatin, dopamine

prolactin --> ant pit
What inhibits TSH? How does it travel to the pituitary?
somatostatin inhibits thyroid stimulating hormone (and GH). it travels to the anterior pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system.
negative feedback loop operates like a ___?
thermostat. If levels too high, synthesis/release/secretion stops. too low, etc increases.
Give examples of catecholamines.
epinephrine, norepi, dopamine
What happens when body is exposed to stress?
a neuroendocrine response, known as general adaptation syndrome
what happens during the general adaptation syndrome
3 phases if stress is prolonged
1. alarm = flight or fight
2. resistance = decrease in cortisol
3. exhaustion = energy depletion and tissue degeneration
What is the function of the thyroid gland?
the thyroid gland makes thyroid hormone, which is involved in cellular metabolism
What does thyroid hormone do?
thyroid hormone stimulates metabolism of all cells. (breakdown of proteins, fats, carbs for energy)

[heat and glucose production are byproducts]
What is the synthesis pathway to create thyroid hormone?
hypothalamus synth TRH --> stim release of TSH from anterior pituitiary --> stim production of thyroid hormone in thyroid gland --> TH + tyrosine + iodide = T4 (tetraiodothyronine) --> deiodization creates active T3 form
hyperthyroidism vs Graves disease
hyperthyroidism is the state of elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Grave's disease is IGg (acting as TSH) overstimulating the production of TH

ie high lvls of thyroid hormone can be caused by a number of things?
A patient walks in with protruding eyeballs. What is this condition called?

What is the disease associated with this condition?

Any accompanying clinical manifestations?

Grave's disease

goiter, weight loss, restlessness, sweating, tachycardia
If a patient is in a state of thyrotoxicosis, would TSH levels be higher or lower than normal? Why?
Thyrotoxicosis is abnormally high levels of TH. Negative feedback would decrease the levels of TSH.
Compare and Contrast the clinical manifestations of Grave's disease and Hypothyroidism.
Hyper and Hypothyroidism has effects in: skin, hair, GI funcn, goiter and others.

Hyperthyroidism: diaphoresis, oily thin hair, heat intolerance, weight loss and muscle wasting, diarrhea, exopthalmos.

Hypothyroidism: dry skin, coarse dry hair, cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, loss of lateral eyebrows. (Also myxedema, lethargy, and impaired memory.)
What are the hormones produced by the adrenal glands?
The adrenal glands have two main parts: the other cortex, and the inner medulla.

outer cortex produces: mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogen.

medulla: epinephrine and norepi
What are the functions of cortisol?
cortisol is involved in metabolism, inflammation and immune suppression, and the stress response.

also - stops bone formation, and involved in emotional behavoir.
What is prednisone used for?

A person taking prednisone is at risk of developing what disease?
prednisone is a steroid that is given to patients with chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders.

This is an example of an exogenous corticosteroid, possibly resulting in Cushing's syndrome.
A patient has a moon face, a fatty trunk, and thin extremities. These are classic signs for what disease?

What is the patient at risk for?
Cushing's syndrome puts people at risk for infection, altered emotional behavior, and osteoporosis. also hirsutism.
what is excessive body and facial hair called? Common cause?
Hirsutism. excessive androgens
ACTH deficiency is mos commonly caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. T or F?
F. pituitary destruction is the most common cause.

[autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex = Addison's disease]
What is Addison's disease?
autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex, resulting in low secretion of coritcal hormones
What is Cushing's syndrome?
signs and symptoms that result from excessive amounts of glucocorticoids (eg cortisol)
What is the function of the pancreas?
Pancreas has two functions: exocrine and endocrine.

exocrine - digestive enzymes

endocrine - insulin and glucagon regulate blood glucose levels
What are the different kinds of cells in the pancreas?
Acini cells - digestive enzymes

F cells - pancreatic polypeptides (suppress digestive enzyme release)

Islet of langerhans
- alpha cells - glucagon
- betacells - insulin
- delta cells - somatostatin and gastrin
Where are delta cells located? function?
delta cells of the pancreas are located in the islets of langerhans.

purpose - secrete supression autocrine supression hormones eg somatostatin and gastrin
Insulin is a anabolic hormone. what does anabolic mean?
anabolic, as in anabolism = macromolecular synthesis.

ie. in addition to glucose uptake role, insulin is also involved in protein synthesis and lipid formation
insulin is primarily responsible for glucose uptake. what are other roles?
- protein synth and lipid formation
- uptake of Mg, Ph, K