Graves Disease Case Study

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Graves Disease is a condition within the immune system that appears as a result of the thyroid gland producing an overabundance of hormones. Deception occurs within the immune system of our body, eliciting a release of false, abnormal antibodies that are trying to imitate the normal chemical thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH, by latching to the thyroid hormone receptor, TSHR, on the epithelial cells of the thyroid gland (Jin, Lawless, Sehgal, & Mchenry, 2012). This latching produces a plethora of thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, a process called hyperthyroidism (Prabhakar, 2013). Hypertrophy or goiter cells, are also stimulated due to the binding and activation of the TSHR (Menconi, Marcocci, & Marino, 2014). The mimicking results in an overproduction …show more content…
As found in the review article I selected, “Diagnosis and Classification of Graves ' Disease,” sweating, quivering, intense hammering of the heart, and noticeable weight loss, are seen as results of the high metabolism (Menconi et al., 2014). The body’s reaction to the oversupply of hormones compares with the body’s first symptoms of Graves Disease. The symptoms have an effect on many Systems of the body, such as the Skeletal, Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Dermatologic and Psychiatric. The Skeletal system experiences back pain, the Cardiovascular undergoes an intense drumming of the heart, the Metabolic system sees an increase in weight loss, sweating rises within the Dermatologic, and anxiety as well as restlessness affects the Psychiatric system (Yeung & Romesh, 2014). Graves’ disease is one of the most common endocrine disorders and according to Dr. Judy Jin, “is four to six times more common in women and it occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 50 years” (Jin et al., 2012, p. 1). Graves’ disease stems from the marriage of genetic and environmental factors. Thyroglobulin is an example of one of the thyroid specific genes that has been discovered and named, as well as the human leukocyte antigen- D related (HLA-DR), a susceptible immune regulatory gene found. Compared to the environmental effects of smoking, consumption of iodine, and contagions, the genetic probability of causation has …show more content…
One option of treatment is the surgical removal of the thyroid, a thyroidectomy. In addition, the final two treatments are the prescription of medical antibiotics such as antithyroid drug therapy or radioiodine ablation. The most common way of treatment is the antithyroid drug, which regularizes the two faulty hormones that were made from the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), hormones T3 and T4. A thyroidectomy is only recommended by 2% of endocrinologists in the United States (Kandil et al., 2011). The first research article I chose was published by the American Journal of Surgery, and explained research that was performed in an urban county hospital where the majority of patients are uninsured and without Medicaid. The study was to see whether health care inequalities exist in the treatment of those with Graves’s disease. To begin the study, Jin et al. (2012) suggested that two groups, both with a predominate presence of African American and female patients, be formed. 535 patients joined the first group, to be treated by medical means and 99 patients were filed in the second group, the surgical removal of their thyroid (p. 3). The complete 634 Graves’s disease patients involved were divided into these two respective groups based upon their income, sex, race, and health insurance. In the second group, those being surgically treated were found to have a lower median income than those medically treated. 52% of these patients were

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