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165 Cards in this Set

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groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function

groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function

1. nervous

2. muscle

3. epithelial

4. connective

4 types of tissues
nervous tissue

tissue type responsible for internal communication; "controls"

muscle tissue

tissue type that contracts to cause movement; "produces movement"

epithelial tissue

tissue type that forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters; "covers"

connective tissue

tissue type that supports, protects, binds other tissues together; "supports"


the study of tissues

1. fixed (preserved)

2. sectioned (sliced)

3. stained

3 steps before a specimen can be observed with a microscope


minor distortions of preserved tissue on a microscopic slide

1. covering/lining

2. glandular

2 main classes of epithelial tissue

covering and lining epithelium

main class of epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin; lines open cavities; covers walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity

glandular epithelium

main class of epithelium that forms the glands of the body

1. polarity

2. specialized contacts

3. supported by connective tissue

4. avascular but innervated

5. regeneration

5 special characteristics of epithelium

1. apical surface

2. basal surface

2 surfaces of all epithelia:

apical surface

an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ

basal surface

a lower attached surface of epithelia

brush border

dense area of microvilli

basal lamina

thin, noncellular supporting sheet below the epithelium that acts as a filter for molecules entering from below

reticular lamina

layer of connective tissue deep to the basal lamina containing collagen protein

basement membrane

reinforces the epithelial sheet, resists stretching, and defines the epithelial boundary; includes the basal lamina and reticular lamina


containing no blood vessels

supplied by nerve fibers

1. simple

2. stratified

2 types of epithelial layers

1. squamous

2. cuboidal

3. columnar

3 types of epithelial cells

simple epithelia

epithelia found where absorption, filtration, and secretion occur; consist of a single layer

stratified epithelia

epithelia found in high-abrasion areas, where protection is important; consist of two or more cell layers stacked

squamous cells

flattened and scalelike epithelial cells; diffusion and filtration

cuboidal cells

boxlike epithelial cells; secretion and absorption

columnar cells

tall and column shaped epithelial cells; secretion and absorption, often contain cilia and microvilli

1. simple squamous epithelium

2. simple cuboidal epithelium

3. simple columnar epithelium

4. pseudostratified columnar epithelium

5. stratified squamous epithelium

6. stratified cuboidal epithelium

7. stratified columnar epithelium

8. transitional epithelium

8 types of epithelium

simple squamous epithelium
thin and permeable epithelium found where filtration or the exchange of substances by rapid diffusion is a priority

1. endothelium

2. mesothelium

2 special types of simple squamous epithelium


special type of simple squamous epithelium providing a slick, friction-reducing surface in lymphatic and blood vessels

special type of simple squamous epithelium found in serous membranes
simple cuboidal epithelium

epithelium that secretes and absorbs, found in smallest gland ducts and in many kidney tubules

simple columnar epithelium

epithelium lining the digestive tract, mostly concerned with absorption and secretion; often contain microvilli and tubular glands

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

epithelium that secretes substances, particularly mucus; nuclei lie on different levels

stratified squamous epithelium
most widespread stratified epithelium, found in areas subject to wear and tear; external part of the skin and body openings
stratified cuboidal epithelium
rare epithelium found in some of the larger glands
stratified columnar epithelium
rare epithelium found in the pharynx, male urethra, and some glandular ducts
transitional epithelium
epithelium forming the lining of hollow urinary organs that stretch

consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product; contain many Golgi complexes (for secretion)


an aqueous fluid produced by glands

1. endocrine

2. exocrine

2 classes of glands (by location)
endocrine glands
internally secreting glands; ductless
exocrine glands

glands that secrete their products onto body surfaces or into body cavities

1. unicellular

2. multicellular

2 classes of glands (by number of cells)

unicellular exocrine glands

single-celled glands sprinkled throughout the intestinal and respiratory tracts amid columnar cells with other functions


complex glycoprotein secreted by unicellular glands that dissolves in water and becomes mucus

goblet cells

cuplike exocrine glands in the intestinal tract that secrete mucin

mucous cells

unicellular exocrine glands of the respiratory tract

multicellular glands

exocrine glands with both a duct and a secretory unit (acinus)

1. simple

2. compound

2 main types of multicellular exocrine glands

simple glands

exocrine glands with a single, unbranched duct

compound glands

exocrine glands with branched ducts

1. tubular

2. alveolar (acinar)

3. tubuloalveolar

3 types of multicellular exocrine glands (by cell shape)

tube-shaped secretory cells of a multicellular exocrine gland

alveolar (acinar)

sac-shaped secretory cells of a multicellular exocrine gland
multicellular exocrine gland with both tube- and sac-shaped secretory cells

1. merocrine

2. holocrine

3. apocrine

3 modes of secretion of multicellular exocrine glands
merocrine glands

multicellular exocrine glands that secrete their products by exocytosis as they're produced; ex. pancreas, sweat glands, salivary glands

holocrine glands

multicellular exocrine glands that accumulate their products within them until they rupture; sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin
apocrine glands
multicellular exocrine glands that accumulate their products just beneath the surface before pinching off; uncommon in humans
connective tissue

the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues

1. connective tissue proper

2. cartilage

3. bone

4. blood

4 main classes of connective tissue

1. support

2. protection

3. insulation

4. fuel storage

5. transportation

5 major functions of connective tissue

1. common origin (mesenchyme)

2. degrees of vascularity

3. extracellular matrix

3 common characteristics of connective tissue


common embryonic origin of connective tissues

extracellular matrix
consists of ground substance and fibers; connective tissue is mainly comprised of this

1. ground substance

2. fibers

3. cells

3 main elements of connective tissue

ground substance
unstructured material that fills the space between connective tissue cells and contains the fibers

1. interstitial fluid

2. cell adhesion proteins

3. proteoglycans

3 components of ground substance

1. collagen

2. elastic

3. reticular

3 types of connective tissue fibers
collagen fibers

provide high tensile strength to connective tissue matrix; strongest and most abundant of the three fibers

elastic fibers
long, thin fibers that helps connective tissue retain its normal length and shape; "rubber band"
reticular fibers
short fibers that surround small blood vessels and support soft tissue organs; fuzzy "nets"

1. fibroblasts (connective)

2. chondroblasts (cartilage)

3. osteoblasts (bone)

4. hemopoietic stem cell (blood)

4 main immature cell types in the connective tissue

1. fat cells

2. white blood cells

3. mast cells

4. macrophages

4 additional cell types found in connective tissue

fat cells

cells that store nutrients in connective tissue

white blood cells
cells that respond to injury in connective tissue
mast cells

cells that detect foreign microorganisms and initiate inflammatory response in the connective tissue

1. heparin

2. histamine

3. proteases

3 types of mast cells

large cells that phagocytize foreign materials in connective tissue

1. loose

2. dense

2 classes of connective tissue proper

1. areolar

2. adipose

3. reticular

3 types of loose connective tissue

areolar connective tissue
supports and binds other tissues, holds body fluids, defends against infection, stores nutrients (fat)
areolar tissue in an inflamed area soaks up excess fluids like a sponge, becoming swollen and puffy
adipose tissue

tissue that stores nutrients, used for insulation; similar to areolar tissue


form 90% of adipose tissue; store nutrients

brown adipose tissue

special form of adipose tissue that heats the blood stream using lipid fuels; more common in babies

reticular connective tissue
tissue resembling areolar connective tissue that houses reticular cells; in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow
internal framework that supports many free blood cells (mostly lymphocytes) in reticular connective tissue

1. dense regular

2. dense irregular

3. elastic

3 types of dense connective tissue
dense regular

connective tissue containing closely packed bundles of collagen fibers; flexible with great resistance to tensions

dense irregular
connective tissue with thick bundles of collagen fibers arranged irregularly; found where tension is exerted from many different directions
elastic connective tissue

very elastic tissue found in certain ligaments (such as the vertebrae)


tough but flexible connective tissue; stands up to tension and compression; avascular and no nerve fibers

mature cartilage cells

1. hyaline

2. elastic

3. fibrocartilage

3 types of cartilage
hyaline cartilage

most abundant cartilage; provides firm support with some pliability

elastic cartilage

cartilage with many elastic fibers; similar to hyaline cartilage; ex. external ear and epiglottis


cartilage found where the ability to withstand heavy pressure is required; ex. intervertebral discs, knee minisci

osseous tissue (bone)

rocklike connective tissue that supports and protects body structures

inorganic calcium salts

element that makes bone harder and more rigid


fluid connective tissue that transports nutrients, wastes, and gases in the cardiovascular system

muscle tissue

highly cellular, well-vascularized tissue responsible for body movement and propulsion


elaborate filament that brings about movement or contraction

1. skeletal

2. cardiac

3. smooth

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle
muscle tissue attached to bones, contract to cause body movements
muscle fibers
long, cylindrical skeletal muscle cells
cardiac muscle

muscle tissue found in the walls of the heart that help propel blood; uninucleate and branching

intercalated discs

unique junctions in cardiac muscle

smooth muscle
muscle tissue found mainly in the walls of hollow organs; no visible striations
voluntary muscle
muscle tissues under our conscious control
involuntary muscle
muscle tissues that we cannot consciously control
nervous tissue
tissue that controls and regulates body functions; in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

1. neurons

2. supporting cells

2 main cell types found in nervous tissue


nerve cells that respond to stimuli and transmit electrical impulses

supporting cells
nerve cells that support, insulate, and protect the neurons

1. cutaneous

2. mucous

3. serous

3 types of covering and lining membranes

cutaneous membrane

membrane including the skin

mucous membranes
membrane lining all body cavities that open to the outside of the body; digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts
lamina propria

layer of loose connective tissue that lies under mucous membranes

serous membranes
moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities


serous membrane lining the thoracic wall and lungs


serous membrane enclosing the heart


serous membrane enclosing the abdominopelvic viscera

1. regeneration

2. fibrosis

2 forms of tissue repair


damaged tissue is repaired with the same type of tissue


damaged tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue)

1. inflammation

2. organization

3. regeneration / fibrosis

3 steps of tissue repair

granulation tissue

a delicate pink tissue that forms as tissue repair begins

1. tissue type

2. severity of damage

3. blood supply

4. overall health

4 factors affecting tissue repair

cardia muscle, nervous tissue

tissue that never regenerates

skeletal muscle, cartilage

tissues with weak regenerative ability

smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue

tissues with limited regenerative ability

bone, loose connective tissue

tissues with good regenerative ability


tissue with excellent regenerative ability

primary germ layers

first layers formed during embryonic development

1. ectoderm

2. mesoderm

3. endoderm

3 primary germ layers


germ layer that develops into inner lining of the digestive system, and epithelium


germ layer that develops into muscle and connective tissue, and epithelium


germ layer that develops into nervous tissue, and epithelium

Name - simple squamous epithelium

Function - diffusion and filtration

Location - glomeruli, air sacs (lungs), vessels

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - simple cuboidal epithelium

Function - secretion and absorption

Location - kidney tubules, small glands

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - simple columnar epithelium

Function - absorption, secretion of mucus and enzymes

Location - digestive tract (nonciliated), small bronchi, uterus (ciliated)

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Function - secretion and propulsion of mucus

Location - upper respiratory tract (ciliated), sperm ducts (nonciliated)

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - stratified squamous epithelium

Function - protects underlying tissues

Location - epidermis (keratinized); esophagus, mouth, and vagina (nonkeratinized)

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - transitional epithelium

Function - stretches readily for urine

Location - ureters, bladder, urethra

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - loose connective areolar

Function - cushions organs, houses macrophages, holds fluid

Location - under epithelia, packages organs, surrounds capillaries

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - loose connective adipose

Function - fuel storage, insulation, protection

Location - under skin, abdomen, around kidneys and eyeballs, breasts

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - loose connective reticular

Function - internal skeleton supporting cells

Location - lymphoid organs

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - dense connective regular

Function - attaches muscles and bones, tensile strength in one direction

Location - tendons, ligaments

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - dense connective irregular

Function - tensile strength in many directions

Location - fibrous capsules of organs and joints, dermis

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - dense connective elastic

Function - tissue recoil after stretching, blood flow

Location - large arteries, bronchial tubes, certain ligaments of the vertebral column

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - hyaline cartilage

Function - support and reinforcement, resilient cushion

Location - ends of long bones, ribs, nose, trachea, larynx, embryonic skeleton

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - elastic cartilage

Function - maintains shape while allowing flexibility

Location - external ear (pinna), epiglottis

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - fibrocartilage

Function - great tensile strength absorbs compressive shock

Location - intervertebral discs, knee joints

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - osseous tissue (bone)

Function - support and protection, levers for muscles

Location - bones

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - blood

Function - transport substances

Location - within blood vessels

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - skeletal muscle

Function - movement, maniuplation, facial expression

Location - muscles attached to bone or skin

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - cardiac muscle

Function - propels blood

Location - walls of the heart

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - smooth muscle

Function - propels substances along passageways

Location - walls of hollow organs

Describe (name, function, location)

Name - nervous tissue

Function - transmits electrical signals

Location - brain, spinal cord, nerves

Describe (name, function, location)

Describe (name, function, location)