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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define a Web Log (Blog)

A web log is a set of entries / diary on the world wide web (which is accessible to any web user.)

Define a Data Stucture

A data structure is a group of related data items

Define an Array

A data structure which is a set of data elements of the same type

Define a Record

A Record is a set of data items all related to a single entity

Define what is meant by a Router

A router is a device in a network which holds information about the addresses of computers in the network

Define a Sequential File

A Sequential file is a where records are stored in key sequence order

What is an advantage of an Indexed Sequential File

An indexed sequential file allows serial access to the records but also access directly via the index, (which will be much quicker).

What is the purpose of encryption?

Files are often encrypted to safeguard the data

What is voice recognition?

The person’s voice needs to have been recorded previously and it needs to be compare with the original

What is meant by the term Buffering

An area of memory used to store data that is in transit between two locations, e.g. moving data between a digital camera and a printer

What is double buffering?

Whilst one buffer is being emptied, another can be filled

Advantage of double buffering?

Quicker, avoids waiting for the data transfer

Example of double buffering uses

In a printer queue/ video stream

Define multitasking

Multitasking occurs when more than one task or application is available to the user at the same time

Give 3 examples of an interrupt generated by software

- Run time error

- Input/Output request

- Software fault

Give 3 examples of an interrupt generated by hardware

- Keyboard button clicked

- Printer run out of paper

- Hardware fault

How should a design validation be carried out?

- Check correspondence between the actual design and its specification

- Confirm the most appropriate techniques have been carried out

- Confirm HCI is appropriate

Define a primary key

A primary key (is a field which) uniquely identifies a record in a database.

Define a foregin key

A foreign key is a primary key from one table, included in another table to form a link

What is an index used to

• improve (read) access times for records

• sort the records (for viewing/output)

Why are distributed databases often used

Databases often contain huge amounts of data, It is often more efficient to store data on a number of different computers in different locations to maximize performance.

What is distributed in a distributed database?

Both processing and data

3 Methods of defining algorithms

- Structured English

- Flowcharts

- Pseudo code

What is a parameter?

A parameter is a variable that can be passed to / from the procedure

What are the 2 types of parameter passing?

ByVal (By Value)

ByRef (By Reference)

What is the purpose of Backus-Naur Form

BNF is used to describe (unambiguously) the syntax of a computer language

What is meant by the term relocatable code

Relocatable code is program code which can be moved by the operating system from one area of computer memory to another.

Why is it often useful to use subprogram libraries

Subprogram libraries contain (well-tested) common tasks, etc and can be used by any user, avoiding re-writing.

What is the role of a link loader

A link loader is a software tool which combines already compiled modules into the executable program.

Give an example of a linking error

link editor cannot find a compiled module

4 examples of where a queue is an appropriate data structure

- A printer queue

- A keyboard buffer

- A download buffer

- A processor scheduling queue

What is meant by Underflow

Occurs when the number is too close to zero to bestored by the computer

What is meant by Overflow

Occurs when the number is too large to be stored by thecomputer

What is achieving

Archiving is the process of storing data which is no longer in current use. For example data stored for legal reasons

What is meant by a blocked state

The process is not running because it is waiting for some event(such as an input/output operation)

What is meant by a ready state

The process is not running because another process is currentlybeing run / waiting for processor time

A database is known to be in first normal form. Describe the step necessary to ensurethat it is in second normal form.

Any partial dependencies must be removed

Briefly describe how a bubble sort operates

A pass is made through the data, comparing each value with the following one and swapping them if necessary. A number of passes is made until the data is in order / no swaps

State the two main features of a recursive algorithm

A recursive algorithm is one which calls itself

It must also have a terminating condition

What is meant by a scripting language

A scripting language ( is often embedded in other languages and) can addfunctionality to web pages

When is a 4GL used and why?

Used in a relational database system as a query / manipulation language

because it is relatively close to natural language so requires less programming skill

When is a visual language used and why?

Used for production of GUI

because it may be more intuitive because visual tools are available

When is a special purpose language used and why?

Used for simulation/control applications

because it may have special features relevant to the application e.g. time analysis elements

When is a stack an appropriate data structure?

Subprogram return addresses e.g. undo / back

What is a network protocol?

Protocols are necessary to specify data formats, etc, to enable devices to communicate with each other

What is serial transmission?

Data sent bit-by-bit along the same data line

What is parallel transmission?

All bits in a byte are sent simultaneously along separate data lines

Why do computer systems sometimes need to deal with data in analogue form?

Because many input devices (eg microphone, sensor producing continuously varying voltage etc) produce an analogue signal

An advantage of a binary tree?

faster to search/add a value

A disadvantage of a binary tree?

more complex to program / process

What is meant by a forms dialogue?

Computer prompts for input into specific fields on a screen dialogue form

What is meant by multiprogramming?

A method of benefitting from the speed of a CPU compared with slower peripherals

What are the steps to get a database from 2NF to 3NF?

Any transitive dependencies need to be removed to convert from 2NF to 3NF

It needs to be ensured that each attribute depends only on the primary key

What is the role of an Assembler?

Converts a low level program to machine code

What does an interpreter do?

An interpreter translates each line of the source program then executes it

What does a compiler do?

A compiler translates the whole source code / program prior to execution

Advantage of random access

Allows very fast access irrespective of position in file – very suitable for large files which need this sort of access

Advantage of sequential access

Easier to program

Advantage of indexed sequential access

Allows faster access than sequential because can move directly to individual records

Define the Internet

The internet is a publicly accessible, international collection of interconnected networks

Define Intranet

Collection of webpages held locally on the server of a organisation such as a company or a college

Define Extranet

Like internet, except it is accessible to certain individuals who are not member of the organisation, such as customers

What happens in a left logical shift?

All digits are moved to the left. The left-most digit is discarded and the new right-most digit becomes a zero.

What happens in a right logical shift?

All digits are moved to the right. The right-most digit is discarded and the new left-most digit becomes a zero.

What happens in a right arithmetic shift?

All digits are moved to the left. The right-most digit becomes a zero and the left-most bit is discarded. This operation can result in overflow, if the left-most bit has changed from a 1 to a 0 or vice-versa. This operation can be used for dividing by two.

What happens in a left arithmetic shift?

All digits are moved to the right except for the left-most bit. The right-most bit is discarded, while the left-most bit remains as it was. This has the effect of making sure that negative numbers remain negative numbers. This operation can be used for multiplying by two.

Name the 4 CASE tools

Source code generation, Data modelling, Refactoring, UML generation

What is source code generation? CASE

The main aim of CASE tools is the elimination of the need for a programmer to create and fine-tune every individual line of code

What is data modelling? CASE

To aid in the development of the way in which data moves around the system and is stored

What is refactoring? CASE

Refactoring is changing the code of a program without changing its function. This might be to make code more readable, more maintainable or quicker in execution.