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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the two types of organism?

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

What are eukaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells, as well as cells in algae and fungi

What are prokaryotic cells and how do they differ to eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic cells make up single-celled prokaryotic organisms, they are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells

Describe the structure of an animal cell

plasma (cell surface) membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus,nucleus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes,ribosomes, nuclear envelope, golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, mitochondria

What organelles do plant cells have that animal cells don't?

1) cellulose cell wall with plasmodesmata

2) vacuole

3) chloroplasts

Describe an algal cell

Cells with the same structure as plant cells

Describe a fungal cell

Same structure as plant cells EXCEPT

- their cell walls made with chitin, not cellulose

- no chloroplasts

What is an organelle?

Parts of cells with specific functions

Describe a cell-surface membrane

Membrane found on surface of animal cells and inside the cell wall of other cells, made of lipids and proteins

What is the fuction of a cell surface membrane

Regulates movememnt of substances in/out of cells, has receptor molecules on it which allows it to respond ti chemicals like hormones

Describe a nucleus

Large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope, containing pores. Nucleus contains chromosomes and a nucleolus

What is a nuclear envelope?

A double membrane

What is the function of a nucleus?

-controls cell's activities

-DNA contains instructions to make proteins

-pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm

-nucleolus makes ribosomes

Describe a mitochondrion


-has a double membrane (inner one is folded to form a cristae)

-has a matrix inside containing enzymes for respiration

What is the function of a mitochondrion

-site of aerobic respiration

-where ATP is produced

-found in large numbers in active cells that require lots of energy

Describe a chloroplast

-small and flat

-found in plants and algae

-has a double membrane

-has thylakoid membranes inside that are stacked up to form grana

-grana are linked by lamellae (flat pieces of thylakoid membrane)

What is the function of a chloroplast?

-site of photosynthesis

-some happens in grana

-some happens in stroma

Describe a golgi apparatus

-group of fluid filled membrane-bound flattened sacs

-has vesicles on the edges of sacs

What is the function of the golgi apparatus

-processes and packages new lipids and proteins

-makes lysosomes

Describe a golgi vesicle

-small fluid-filled sac

-found in cytoplasm

-surrounded by a membrane

-produced bu golgi apparatus

What is the function of a golgi vesicle

-stores lipids and proteins made by golgi apparatus

-transports them out of the cell via the membrane

Describe a lysosome

-round organelle

-sourrounded by a membrane

-no internal structure

-type pf golgi vesicle

What is the function of a lysosome

-contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes

-they're kept separate from cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane

-can be used to digest invading cells

-can break down the worn out components of the cell