Similarities And Differences Between Plants And Animals

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Living organisms are made from cells. There are two types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells are more complex because they contain both. Plants and animals are made from eukaryotic cells, but they are different. Plants have a cell wall that provides more structure and the also have chloroplasts that help them carry out photosynthesis. Animal cells have neither of these. Stem cells are a unique type of animal cell that have no specialty. They are being used in breakthrough research to treat cancer and other chronic diseases. There are two types of stem cells embryonic and adult. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to become any type of cell; therefore, …show more content…
Mitosis is the division of somatic cells that results in two genetically identical diploid daughter cells. Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis are the six phases in mitosis. Meiosis is the division of two gametes that produce four genetically varied haploid daughter cells. Meiosis has ten phases split into two parts. The four daughter cells are different because they experience crossing over during prophase one. Crossing over, or homologous recombination is the random exchange of genetic information. All life has DNA, RNA, and proteins. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double stranded nucleic acid that holds all the genetic information for life. It makes us act and look the way we do. DNA contains for bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, that combine to form around three billion base pairs in the human genome. DNA has a sugar and phosphate backbone with a nitrogenous base connected by a covalent bond. DNA replicates by unzipping with the help of DNA helicase and the single strand of DNA acts as a template for the new DNA. RNA is also a nucleic acid, but it contains a single strand of ribonucleic acid, not double stand of deoxyribonucleic acid. RNA participates in translating DNA into proteins, or central dogma. There are three types of RNA, messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. In the nucleus, enzymes make an mRNA copy of one side of the DNA. This process in called transcription. …show more content…
Mendelian inheritance is the simplest type of inheritance because it only involves two alleles and the dominant allele always shows over the recessive allele. Incomplete dominance is when two alleles that are not fully dominant combine to make a phenotype that is in between the two alleles. An example is a homozygous red flower crossing with a homozygous white flower and making a heterozygous pink flower. Co-dominance occurs when two dominant alleles cross to make a phenotype that is a mixture. Such as a homozygous yellow flower crossing with a homozygous green flower to make a heterozygous yellow and green striped flower. Sex-linked inheritance uses the 23rd chromosome to pass traits through generations. If you are a female, your 23rd pair will be “X, X” if you are a male, it will be “X, Y”. Polygenetic inheritance involves multiple genes that have information regarding one trait, such as hair color. Multifactorial inheritance uses both the environmental factors and genetics. An example of this is developing cancer or and addiction. The human genome is all the three billion base pairs that make up the human code per say. In 2003, the full human genome had been sequenced, meaning that every single base pair in our DNA in known. This advancement helps further the medical fiend because it created gene therapy. Gene therapy is the insertion of normal genes into human cells that have genetic disorders. DNA

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