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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

2 parts of cytoplasm

- cytosol

- organelles


- generate ATP through aerobic respiration

- have their own DNA, RNA, ribosomes

- outer membrane

- inner membrane

What are the fold and cavities in inner membrane?

folds: cristae

cavity: matrix


- sites of protein synthesis

- reads messenger RNA

Rough ER

- studded w/ ribosomes

- manufacture of all proteins secreted from cells

- protein processing & modification

Functions of smooth ER

- steroid hormone production

- detoxification

- calcium storage

- vesicle formation

- break down glycogen

- absorb/synthesize/transport lipids

Golgi apparatus

- cis face: receives material from ER

- trans face: shipping side

- collects, sorts, modifies, packages & distributes proteins & lipids made in ER


- membrane bound vesicles containing enzymes

- break down molecules which produces hydrogen peroxide

Enzymes in peroxisomes

- oxidases neutralize free radicals, produce H2O2 which then oxidizes other molecules

- catalase break down excess H2O2


- produced by golgi apparatus

- contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes

- autophagy: break down unwanted foreign substances or worn out parts of cells


destruction of the entire cell with lysosomal enzymes

- occurs in some pathological conditions

- responsible for tissue deterioration after death

- head of a sperm releases lysosomal enzymes to get past protective coating of the egg

Tay-Sachs disease

inherited disease due to absence of one lysosomal enzyme

- this enzyme usually breaks down a membrane glycolipid

- glycolipid levels accumulate and nerve cells function less efficiently

symptoms of tay-sachs

seizures, muscle rigidity, blindness, dementia, usually die by age 5


- dispose of proteins that are no longer needed

- unfold proteins and break down into short peptides and amino acids


strands made of spherical protein subunits called actins, help to generate movement or provide mechanical support

Intermediate filaments

tough, insoluble protein fibers constructed like woven ropes composed of tetramer fibrils, attach to desmosomes to resist pulling forces on the cell


hollow tubes of spherical protein subunits called tublins, assembled by the centrosome, form mitotic spindle spindle fibers, determine cell shape, movement & positioning of organelles and chromosomes


hairlike projections on a cell's surface


longer than cilia, move an entire cell


consists of 2 centrioles


pinwheel of 9 triplets of microtubules

What are the bases of cilia and flagella?