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62 Cards in this Set

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What is the stucture that makes up every living thing?
the cell
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1674- He used a single-lens microscope to observe pond water and found a tiny world of living organisms
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1674- He used a single-lens microscope to observe pond water and found a tiny world of living organisms
Robert Hooke
1665- He observed under a microscope that a cork seemed to be made of thousands of tiny, empty chambers or "cells"
Matthias Schleiden
1838- German botanist who concluded that all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
1839- German biologist who concluded that all animals are made of cells
Rudolph Virchow
1855- He concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells
What are the 3 concepts of the cell theory?
1) All living things are composed of cells
2) Cells are basic units of stucture and function of living things
3) New cells are produced from existing cells
Why are electron microscopes capable of revealing details smaller than those of light microscopes?
The wavelengths of electron micros are much shorter than those of light micros.
-organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
-grow and reproduce
-simpler than eukaryotic cells
-example= bacteria
-organisms whose cells contain a nucleus
-more comple than prokaryotes
-examples= plants, animals, fungi, and protists
What is an organelle?
a specilized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
What is the function of the nucleus?
contains all of the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
What important molecules does the nucleus contain?
DNA, RNA, and proteins
The grandular material visible with the nucleus is called____
What does chromation consist of?
DNA bound to protein
What are chromosomes?
threadlike stuctures that contain the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Most nuclei contain a small, dense region known as the____
What occurs in the nucleolus?
-assembly of ribosomes begins
What is the nuclear envelope?
allows material to move into and out of the nucleus; layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
What are ribosomes?
-small particles of RNA and protein found in the cytoplasm
-produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus
What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?
-rough ER has ribosomes found on its surface
-smooth ER does not
Golgi Body (apparatus)
- modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell
-contain enzymes that help synthesize lipids
-break down organelles that have outlived their usefulness
-contain enzymes that break down lipids, carbs, and proteins
saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbs
What is the role of the central vacuole in plants?
the pressure makes it possible for plants to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers
How does the contractile vacuole in a paramecium help maintain homeostasis?
pumps excess water out of the cell and therefore controls the water content
What are mitochondria?
organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Biologist Lynn Margulis has suggested that mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants are what kind of organisms?
prokaryotic endosymbionts
-a network of fibers located throughout the cell's cytoplasm
-these fibers give support to the cell and help the cell maintain shape
-made up of proteins known as tubulins
-help with cell shape
-build cilia and flagella
-help w/ cell division- form mitotic spindles which seperate chromosomes
-help w/ cell division- from centrioles which help organize division
-made up of proteins known as actin
-form networks and framework that support the cell
-help the cell move
Cell Membrane
-regulates what enters and leaves the cell
-provides protection and support
The core of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called the_____
What is the main function of the cell wall?
provide support and protection of the cell
What are plant cell walls mostly made of?
cellulose- a tough carbohydrate fiber
What is the concentration of a solution?
-mass and soulte in a given volume of solution
-mass divided by volume
-process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
What is meant when a system has reached equilibrium?
the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system
What does it mean that biological membranes are selectively permeable?
some substances can pass across them and others cannot
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
On which side of a selectively permeable membrane does osmosis exert a pressure?
-exerts an osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side
What is facilitated diffusion?
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
What is the role of protein channels in the cell membrane?
act as carriers making it easy for certain molecules to cross
The energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference is called_____
active transport
-process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
-process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround an engulf large particles an take them into the cell
-a form of active transport due to requiring energy
-process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding enviroment
-process by which a cell releases large amounts of materials
During endocytosis, what happens to the pocket in the cell membrane when it breaks loose from the membrane?
forms a vacuole within the cytoplasm
- water moves from higher concentration (inside the cell) to lower concentration (outside the cell)
-plamolysis= cell shrinks
-water moves out/in at the same rate
-equilibrium= cell doesn't change shape
-water moves from higher concentration (outside the cell) to lower concentration (inside the cell)
-cytolcysis= cell grows & bursts
A single-celled organism is called_____
a unicellular organism
Cell Specialization
-process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
-the human body contains many different cell types
-some cells are specialized to enable movement
What are the four levels of organization in a multicellular organism?
individual cells
organ systems
What is tissue?
-a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
What are the four main types of tissue in most animals?
connective tissue
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function are called a(n)______
What kinds of tissues can be found within the muscle of your body?
nervous tissues and connective tissues
What is an organ system?
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function