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31 Cards in this Set

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First Estate
Made up of religious leaders and the clergy. represented less than 1%. Owned or controlled one-fifth of the land. Special rights: no taxes
Second Estate
Nobility, 20 and 30 percent of the land in France, but consisted of about 1.5 percent of the population, little to no taxes, could tax their works.
Third Estate
95%, peasants, servants, skilled and unskilled workers, doctors, lawyers, teachers, storekeepers, and laborers, paid the largest share of the taxes, yet had very few privileges and had little to no influence on the Monarch
Clergy
Made up the 1st estate, collected taxes
Nobility
Made up the 2nd estate, didn't have to pay taxes, and could charge their workers taxes
Bourgeoisie
Made up the 3rd estate w/peasants, were more middle class, but still had to pay taxes.
Peasants
Made up the 3rd estate, backbone of the economy, paid taxes, treated poorly
Old Regime
Refers to the aristocratic system that characterized French society and politics, overthrown by Revolution
Enlightenment
A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition
Natural Law
a philosophical and legal belief that all humans are governed by basic innate laws, life liberty etc
Rousseau
a revolutionary thinker and philosopher questioning the premise of society as the protector and arbiter of good. basic principles= man is free in the natural state but that within society his is more or less enslaved to that society.
Absolutism
A form of government in which all power is vested in a single ruler or other authority
Natural Rights
political theory that maintains that an individual enters into society with certain basic rights and that no government can deny these rights.
Scientific Revolution
was the emergence of modern science, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, and chemistry transformed views of society and nature
Newton
was an English physicist and mathematician laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, laws of motion, etc.
Hobbes
(Thomas) English philosopher, social contract theory. developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; equality, etc.
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience
French Philosophe
Any of the leading philosophical, political, and social writers of the 18th-century French Enlightenment. Locke, Hobbes, etc.
Montesquieu
a French social commentator and political thinker heory of separation of powers, which is taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world
Voltarie
1694-1778, Enlightenment thinker, champion of personal freedom. favored the rule of the able.
The Social Contract
addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. States that we give up some of our rights in exchange for protection of out other rights.
King Louis XVI
King of France during F.R. Succeeded his grandfather in 1774. Tried to reform France in accordance w/Enlightenment- abolish serfdom, remove taxes and increase religious freedom.
Marie Antoinette
Wife of King, suspect of many rumors, held under lock down during F.R.
Divine Right Theory
the concept that the right to rule derives from God and that kings are answerable for their actions to God alone
Flour War
uprising caused by the excessive price of bread in France. the government enacted fewer price controls, leaving prices to the free market. This caused the price of flour to climb, and the working classes could not buy bread.
Financial Crisis
1756–1783 France builds up enormous debt by participating in the Seven Years’ War and American Revolution, tried to raise taxes, but that only hurt 3rd estate.
Alexandre de Calonne
Controller general of finances appointed by Louis XVI in 1783; recommended across-the-board taxation as the only way to salvage France’s dire financial situation
Assembly of Nobles
In 1788, Louis called an assembly of nobles, hoping that they might accept taxation and economy measures. They flatly rejected his requests,insisting that he call the Estates-General, which had not met since 1614.
Estates General
originated in the thirteenth century, used in situations when monarchs needed support, but were used irregularly, considered too unhelpful to use frequently, and never turned into a true representative institution.
Register of Grievances
List of grievances the 3rd estate made to the government. Included high taxes and discrepancy between wealthy and poor.
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge, "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established" signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789