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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the nucleus of an atom made of?
Protons and neutrons.
What is the relative charge of an electron?
What is the relative charge of a proton?
What is the relative charge of a neutron?
What is the relative mass on an electron?
What is the relative mass of a proton?
What is the relative mass of a neutron?
What is an isotope?
Elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Groups are what?
Elements with the same amount of electrons in the outer shell.
How are groups arranged?
What do periods increase in order of?
In order of how many shells the electrons occupy.
How are periods arranged?
What did John Dalton do?
Developed the early theory of atoms.
Who confirmed John Dalton's theory?
JJ Thompson, Rutherford and Bohr.
Geiger and Mardsen's findings confirmed or disproved Dalton?
What are atoms with 8 electrons in the outer shell?
Stable electronic Structure
How an atoms become stable?
By transferring electrons.
What does OIL RIG stand for?
Oxidation is loss

Reduction is gain

Metals atoms lose/gain electrons to become stable?
Lose, and become a positive ion.

Non-metal atoms gain/lose electrons to become stable?
Gain to become negative ions.
What is the process of ionic bonding?
A metal atom becomes a positive atom by losing an electron and non-metal gains an electron to become a negative ion. These then attract each other.
How do we illustrate ionic bonding?
Dot and cross diagram
Draw a diagram for the ionic bonding of Magnesium and Oxygen.
What is the structure of sodium chloride or magnesium oxide?
Giant ionic lattice with have strong electrostatic attraction.
When does sodium chloride conduct electricity?
In solution or molten
When does MgO conduct electricity?
When molten
Why does MgO have a higher boiling point than NaCl?
-Stronger electrostatic attraction

-Each Mg donates 2 electrons to each oxygen whereas Na only does 1 to chlorine

-Mg has tiny radius so gets very close to the oxygen which makes bonds stronger

What is covalent bonding?
Non-metals share electron pairs between atoms.
Draw a dot and cross diagram for Cl2
Why don't CO2 and H2O conduct electricity?
There's no free electrons.
The group number is the same as?
The number of electrons in the outer shell
In 1865, what did Newlands do?
Put 56 elements into groups and found that every 8th one behaved similarly.
In 1869, what did Mendeleev do?
Arranged elements into a table and noticed periodic changes in properties. He also noticed gaps and predicted more elements would be found.
In 1891 what did Mendeleev's table not contain?
The noble gasses.
What are the properties of group one metals?
-React vigorously with water

-Give off hydrogen

-Reacts with water to form an alkali (the hydroxide of the metal)

Put these in order of reactivity:




Most to least

1. Potassium

2. Sodium

3. Lithium

(Reactivity increases down the group)

What is the process called when an atom loses an electron?
How can we test if lithium, sodium or potassium are present in a compound?
The flame test
Explain the process of the flame test
-A flame test wire is moistened with dilute hydrochloric acid

-Then dipped into the solid chemical

-Then put over a blue Bunsen flame

-Colours of flames are recorded

What colour will a flame burn if lithium is present?
What colour will a flame burn if sodium is present?
What colour will a flame burn if potassium is present?
At room temp, what is chlorine?
A green gas
What is bromine at room temp?
Orange liquid
What is iodine at room temp?
Grey solid
Why are atoms with less shells more reactive?
The nearer the outside shell is to the nucleus, the more pull there is and thus it's easier to pull in an electron. This means it's more reactive.
What is a halogen?
A group 7 element
What happens when halogens react with alkali metals?
A metal halide is formed.
Name a metal halide
Potassium iodide
What happens if a halide is bubbled through solutions of metal halides?
Either there'll be no reaction, or there'll be a displacement reaction.
What is a displacement reaction?
A type of oxidation-reduction reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another - that is, one element is replaced by another in a compound.
Give an example of a displacement reaction?
Cl + KBr --> KCl + Br

Chlorine displaces the bromine to form bromine solution. This makes an orange solution.

What colour is the product of a bromine + potassium iodide reaction?
It's just iodine solution, so red-brown
What colour are copper compounds?
What colour are Iron(II) compounds?
Pale green
What colour are Iron(III) compounds?
What are transition elements often used as?
Which catalyst is used in the Haber process?
What catalyst is used in the manufacture of margarine?
What happens when a metal carbonate is heated?
It undergoes thermal decomposition
What is a catalyst?
A chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not changed or used up by the reaction.
How do we identify the presence of metal ions in a solution?
Add sodium hydroxide solution
What colour does Cu2+ turn when you add sodium hydroxide solution?
Blue solid
What colour does Fe2+ turn when you add sodium hydroxide solution?
Grey/green solid
What colour does Fe3+ turn when you add sodium hydroxide solution?
Orange/brown gelatinous solid
Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ are all ...?
Metal hydroxide precipitates
Name a physical property of copper
High thermal conductivity- making it good for saucepans.
Name a chemical property of gold
Resistance to attack by oxygen
Name some physical properties of metals
Lustrous, malleable, ductile
Why is aluminium good for making car frames?
It has low density
Name three conductive metals
Copper, silver and gold
What is a metallic bond?
Strong electrostatic force between close-packed positive metal ions and a sea of de-localised electrons.
What are superconductors?
Materials that conduct with little or no resistance as there's no magnetic fields inside it. Mercury is one at -268.8 degrees.
What are the potential benefits of superconductors?
-Loss free power transmission

-Superfast electric circuits

-Powerful electromagnets

Why is the use of superconductors low?
Because they require extreme temperatures
What are so pollutants found in river water?
-Nitrates from fertilisers

-Pesticides from crop spraying

-Lead from old water pipes

What are the three stages of water purification?
Sedimentation: chemicals added make solid particles and bacteria settle out

Filtration: layer of sand or gravel filters out remaining fine particles, some types also filter microbes

Chlorination: chlorine added to kill microbes

What colour is barium sulphate?
What colour is silver bromide?
What colour is silver iodide?
What colour is silver chloride?