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354 Cards in this Set

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Because Steve is a man, Susan thinks that he will not be skilled at caring for children. Susan's thinking is an example of
sex stereotyping
Researchers studying the stereotypes about females and males find that
1. the male stereotype is the more rigidly defined of the two
Studies of stereotypes using a method that allows participants to rate the degree to which traits characterize both the typical woman and the typical man suggest that
2. there is a tendency for the clusters of masculine and feminine traits seen to overlap
Research by Deaux and Lewis on four different components of gender stereotypes (traits, role behaviors, occupations, and physical appearance) showed that
4. both (a) and (c)
1. people see these components as able to vary independently to some extent
and
3. information about one component of the gender stereotype influences people's assumptions about the others
Researchers comparing the importance of different components of gender stereotypes have found that
2. respondents link role behavior that is counterstereotypical for an individual's biological sex to speculation that the person is homosexual
Sally holds a stereotype that women are not physically aggressive. So, when she hears a woman's footsteps behind her on a dark, deserted city street, she will
2. be quite a bit less fearful than she would if she heard a man's footsteps
Sexism is defined as
3. the negative evaluation of persons or their activities because of their sex
A person who is very competent in a gender-inappropriate role
2. can sometimes be overevaluated if the role is seen as extremely unusual for her/his gender
According to stereotypes held by white Americans,
4. both (b) and (c)
2. black women tend to be judged as less "feminine" than white women
and
3. black women's strengths are often labeled "matriarchal"
The idea that there is a "double standard" of aging refers to the notion that
4. the changes in physical appearance that accompany aging are often considered "distinguished" in men but unattractive in women
Research on physical attractiveness and self concept indicates that
2. weight and body shape, while important to men, are the central determinant of women's perception of their own attractiveness
With respect to disability and sexual assault, statistics show that
1. disabled women are more likely than other women to be sexually assaulted
According to the "self fulfilling prophecy" explanation for the maintenance of gender stereotypes,
1. people often adopt gender role behaviors in response to the implied expectations of others
An androgynous person is
3. a person who has both feminine and masculine qualities
A problem with trying to measure masculinity and femininity is that
1. masculinity and femininity are still defined only as the two sets of qualities that distinguish males from females, qualities that may vary a great deal across times and places
During the latter part of the 19th century, physicians theorized that the womb
1. exercised a dominating influence over a woman's personality
In Freud's psychosexual stages-oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital-the development of boys and girls diverges
3. during the phallic stage
In Freudian theory, the Oedipus complex in males
2. involves a boy's fear that his father may castrate him
In Freudian theory, which of the following is NOT a result of the Electra complex?
1. girls develop a stronger superego than boys
In her later writings, Karen Horney made it clear that she felt
2. the cultural pattern of preference for sons over daughters made girls more vulnerable to the development of a sense of inferiority
The set of behaviors socially defined as appropriate for one's sex refers to
1. gender role
As explanation for the development and maintenance of gender roles, social structural approaches, in contrast with identification theories, emphasize
3. the greater power and status often accorded to males rather than females
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter's research on women in organizations,
4. apparent gender differences in leadership behaviors could be traced to the social structure of the organization
Within sociobiology, the Wilson thesis implies that
4. males are programmed for promiscuity, females for sexual selectivity
Social learning theory suggests all of the following but one. Which one is not consistent with social learning theory?
2. Sons change their identification from mother to father because of fear of the father
The importance of social learning in the development of gender roles is supported by all but one of the following points. Select the item that is least supporting of social learning.
2. Same-sex models are not always selected for imitation
Understanding that one's gender is fixed and cannot be altered by a change in hairstyle, dress, or name
2. occurs between the ages of three and five
The focus on the display of gender-related behaviors rather than on their acquisition is a characteristic of:
4. interactive model
Cumulative continuity
3. is the process through which an individual, beginning in childhood, selects and creates environments that fit her or his preferred forms of behavior
According to the interactive model of gender-role behavior, the degree to which an individual's behavior conforms to gender stereotypes in a particular situation depends on what the individual believes about herself or himself and on
2. situational cues
Which of the following is not a limitation of the scientific attempt to capture "pure" truth?
3. Scientists must accept theories uncritically
The most controlled way to test tenets of a theory about sex and gender is
3. with an experiment using the experimental method
Dr. Shin wants to study female-male differences in aggression. She plans a study that involves the daily observation of children in a laboratory that is outfitted like a playroom. The research method she is using is
4. naturalistic observation
In collecting quantitative data and interpreting the resulting statistics used to compare female and male groups, one should be guided by all but one of the following points. Indicate the exception:
1. all statistically significant differences are socially significant
Many scientists now argue that the relationship between heredity and environment is
2. that they always work together to produce particular outcomes
Margaret Mead's early cross-cultural research on gender was important because it showed that
4. cultures can differ dramatically in their notions of femininity and masculinity
The textbook notes that an overview of the biases and pitfalls encountered in studying sex and gender suggests that
3. a pervasive tendency to look for differences rather than similarities dominates the research
Research that uses only male illustrations as cues or stimuli, or conformity topics not equally familiar to males and females, represents the problem of gender bias
4. in defining and measuring variables
When data comparing males and females are analyzed, ignoring the pattern of overlap between male and female distributions reflects an emphasis on
2. looking for differences
It was a common assumption of many anthropologists that the seclusion of menstruating women in some cultures is a restriction imposed by men on women and is experienced by women as an exclusion. Because this assumption reflects the anthropologists' cultural biases, it is an example of
3. ethnocentrism
The reliance on biological explanations as a basis for observed gender differences when other explanations are not obvious is of questionable usefulness when
3. both of the above
1. the biological mechanisms that might be involved are not apparent
and
2. socialBenvironmental influences have not been well explored
With one exception, the following items are indicative of androcentrism and/or misogyny in science. Indicate the exception.
2. the ideal that scientific investigation should be unbiased
In the United States, the percentage of undergraduate engineering degrees earned by female students is
2. less than 20 percent, but greater than 5 percent
In the field of psychology, women have made substantial inroads. The current situation for women in psychology is that
4. both (b) and (c)
2. women are more likely to end up in the "soft" areas of psychology, such as developmental and clinical, while men are more likely to be in the "hard" areas of cognition and perception
and
3. major psychological journals now carry more articles about gender
With respect to the issue of bias in research on sex and gender, the chapter on researching sex and gender concludes that
3. cultural stereotypes about masculinity and femininity influence the research at many levels and stages
Bourne, Healey, and Beer’s investigation of gender differences in responses to military conflict and terrorism revealed that:
3. there was a difference between men’s and women’s responses to fictional terrorist attacks
According to Lips, which of the following factors does not contribute in maximizing the apparent disparity between everyday observation and results from controlled research settings?
3. researchers’ unconscious biases always skew their research findings
Social context and status make a difference in the way men and women respond to interpersonal influence. For example,
2. women are less persuaded by arguments that include less social interaction
Among the Mbuti,
3. prolonged disagreement is labeled “noise” and is considered offensive to the forest
Which of the following is not true about the results of research and analysis on gender differences in nurturance?
1. females appear more nurturant in the majority of studies, while males’ nurturance varies between studies
In the studies of gender differences in altruism, researchers found
1. no overall tendency for either males or females to be more helpful to others
Which of the following factors is not one that may explain why gender differences may look smaller in the lab than outside it?
3. differences in the socio-economic status of the participants in the survey
In Lips’ analysis, which of the following are important mediators of gender differences?
3. both of these are important mediators of gender differences
Which of the following does the textbook propose as a probable explanation for study results in group leadership that reveal gender differences in dominance?
3. participants’ learned tendency to ascribe more status to men than women mean that men emerge as group leaders more often than women do
Hyde's (1984) meta-analysis of gender differences in aggression indicated that
4. gender accounted for an average of 5 percent of the variance in aggression
According to research by Eagly and Steffen (1986), who examined the relationship between gender differences in aggression and normative expectations for male and female aggression,
1. the greatest male-female differences in aggression occurred in studies using behaviors where expectations and norms for males and females were most different
Cross-cultural research examining gender differences in aggression suggests that
2. in societies where aggression and violence are frowned upon, gender differences in aggression appear to be minimal
Eagly and Carli's finding that greater female than male influenceability is more likely to be found by male than by female researchers led them to examine the ways that bias in research may be related to the researcher's gender. They concluded that
4. both male and female researchers introduce bias in ways that make the portrayal of their own gender more favorable
When college students whose dominance has been measured with a personality test are placed in mixed-gender pairs,
4. the male partner is more likely to assume leadership, regardless of dominance score
American studies of dominance in racially mixed groups have found that
1. black women are more likely than white women to assume leadership positions in all-female groups
Cross-cultural studies of nurturance show that
1. girls and boys differ more in nurturance in societies where girls are directly socialized more toward nurturance than boys are
One measure of empathy for which there is a fairly consistent finding of higher levels for females is
1. sensitivity to nonverbal cues
John is a company president and Jane is a secretary in the company. If you observe that John's behavior is characterized by dominance and Jane's by submissiveness, one reasonable conclusion would be that
1. John confronts many situations where dominance is expected because of his position; Jane confronts many situations where submissiveness is expected
When we read researchers' conclusions about large categories of behavior such as aggression or nurturance, one source of caution in our interpretation of their conclusions should be that
3. the conclusions are based on the measurement of only isolated, easily measurable variables
In trying to decide whether to believe our own observations or the research findings about a particular gender difference, the text suggests that the best strategy is
4. to take neither the research nor one's own observations entirely at face value
The development of male or female gonads, their secretion of hormones, the resulting development of female or male internal reproductive organs and external genitalia summarizes
2. the process of sexual differentiation
A person's genetic sex is determined
1. by his or her father
A trait is said to be sex-linked when
2. its genes are carried partially or totally on one of the sex chromosomes
Which of the following is true of the sex hormones?
3. either sex can produce androgens and estrogens
If there is any effect of prenatal and early postnatal hormones on brain and behavioral sex differences in humans, researchers have focused on _______ as the most likely hormonal candidate.
2. testosterone
Studies attempting to link behavioral sex differences in humans with the prenatal hormonal environment
2. produce correlational findings that reveal little about how hormonal effects may occur
When an infant's sex is ambiguous at birth,
1. doctors decide which sex to assign the child by assessing the physical characteristics present at birth and projecting how well the child will be able to function as a male or female
Girls with CAH must take lifetime cortisone therapy to compensate for the continuing malfunction of their adrenal glands. This makes it difficult to interpret findings of more "masculine" behavior in these girls because
2. cortisone can cause mood elevation and hyperactivity, perhaps causing the differences in behavior between the CAH girls and other girls
In general, conclusions concerning the prenatal androgenization of genetic females and their subsequent masculinization can be
3. only tentative because of the confounding of prenatal androgenization with other variables
An individual's gender identity
4. appears to be wrong in transsexuals
The findings of the Imperato-McGinley study of intersexed males in the Dominican Republic
2. are not conclusive with respect to the formation of gender identity because the biological and environmental influences on the children are so confounded with each other
Researchers searching for a genetic component of homosexuality have found that
1. identical twins are much more likely to have the same sexual orientation than are fraternal twins
Evidence of a correlation between prenatal exposure to androgens and postnatal rough-and-tumble play provides suggestive support for the existence of a prenatal hormonal basis for subsequent
1. gender-role behaviors
Researchers studying the possible activational effect of testosterone on male aggression have found that
2. the relationship between testosterone and certain anti-social behaviors is weaker in high socioeconomic status than in low socioeconomic status men
Male winners of tennis matches and chess competitions show higher levels of testosterone than the losers of such competitions do. These findings can be used to argue that
2. the experience of prevailing in competition affects hormone levels
Research on the general intelligence of males and females indicates that
4. both females and males with higher IQs are less gender-role conforming
In studies of perceptual speed and accuracy,
1. females tend to outscore males from the age of 4 onward
With regard to male-female differences in sensation and perception, it has generally been found that
3. male infants show weaker responsiveness to faces than do female infants
When looking at some specific aspects of verbal performance, researchers have found which the following?
4. all of the above
1. there is quite a large female advantage on tests of associational fluency (generating synonyms)
2. boys are much more likely than girls to be stutterers and to be dyslexic
3. males tend to outscore females on tests of verbal analogies
In tests of specific areas of mathematics performance,
4. both (a) and (c)
1. gender differences favoring males in mathematical problem solving appear most reliably in high school and are maintained or increased in college
and
3. problem solving appears to be the only area of mathematics achievement in which gender differences may be cause for concern
Benbow and Stanley's studies of gender differences in mathematical performance among junior high school students
2. provides no information about gender differences among average females and males
Spatial visualization
2. is often measured using the Embedded Figures Test
In normal right-handed people, brain organization is such that
4. none of the above
1. verbal skills tend to be in the right hemisphere, certain spatial skills in the left
2. female brains are more lateralized than male brains
3. females have better developed left hemispheres; males have better developed right hemispheres
Sex differences in the degree of brain lateralization
1. do not exist across all aspects of cognitive abilities
Studies have focused on the corpus callosum, the "bridge" between the right and left hemispheres of the brain, to determine whether it is more developed in one sex than in the other. The results of such studies
4. are too varied to be cited with confidence to prove female-male differences in brain lateralization
Observed scores on cognitive tasks involving visual/spatial and mathematical abilities
3. can be improved through specific experience and practice or training
Investigations of associations between affective/social factors and gender differences in some kinds of perceptual/cognitive performance provide evidence that
2. males and females engaged in the same cognitive tasks in the same setting with the same teachers or helpers may still be receiving training that is gender-biased
When girls receive strong messages that they are incapable of doing things such as mathematics while boys' messages are based on the notion that they should not do certain things, such messages represent affective/social factors related most strongly to
4. self-confidence
In psychology's extensive history of searching for intellectual differences between females and males, such gender differences have
2. for the most part proven relatively small and elusive when psychologists have focused on broad classes of abilities, such as verbal abilities
Most of the recent research on perceptual/cognitive gender differences has concentrated
3. on cognitive rather than perceptual performance
In human sexual response cycles, the phase governed by initiation of the same physiological processes-vasocongestion and myotonia-for females and males is the
3. excitement phase
The orgasmic phase in human sexual response
1. involves greater individual variation in duration and intensity for females than for males
Critics such as Leonore Tiefer have argued that the model of human sexuality used by Masters and Johnson is inadequate because
3. it favors a male approach to sexuality by focusing only on the physical aspects of sexuality
Attempts to measure gender differences in sexual desire by asking about respondent's desire for sexual activity
3. suggest that women and men may differ not so much in the frequency with which they desire sexual activity but in the kinds of activities they desire
As attempts to study and describe sexual activity, "sex surveys"
4. typically provide rough approximations rather than completely accurate representations of a population's sexual activities
According to the most recent surveys, the average married couple in their mid-twenties
2. has sexual intercourse between two and three times per week
Researchers studying lesbian sexuality have found results that suggest that
4. all of the above
1. lesbian women and heterosexual women are similar in the frequency with which they have sex
2. lesbian couples have sex much less frequently than any other type of couple
3. the frequency of genital sex often declines dramatically between lesbians in long-term committed relationships
Studies of teen pregnancy show that
4. both (a) and (c)
1. there has been a decrease in teen pregnancy in recent years
and
3. the United States has one of the highest teen birth rates in the developed world
Research on sexuality, aging, and life span issues generally supports the point that
2. elderly persons of both sexes commonly fear the loss of sexual interest and ability
Emphasizing needs and pleasures as reasons for having sex in contrast to stressing love and commitment is cited in the text as a difference
4. in male as opposed to female motives respectively
Heiman's research, in which subjects were exposed to explicit descriptions of heterosexual male-or female-initiated sex, with or without romantic aspects, established
2. that women were significantly more likely than men were to miss their own physiological arousal
Research now indicates that exposure to sexually violent pornography
4. increases the aggressive behavior of males against females but not against males
Studies of rape on college campuses show that
3. college victims of rape may experience decreased self-confidence and may drop out of classes or leave school
A major difficulty with research into the frequency of different sexual orientations is
2. the lack of agreed-upon conceptual and operational definitions of sexual orientation
Basic gender differences surrounding sexuality in our culture reflect the fact that
1. sex is still often defined in terms of male anatomy and needs
In women's menstrual cycle, the pattern of hormone release is maintained through
4. a negative feedback system, involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries
Studies of mood fluctuation over the menstrual cycle show that
2. the variability in women's moods does not seem to differ appreciably from the variability of men's moods
Studies of performance during the menstrual cycle have shown
1. no impairment of academic performance by premenstrual symptoms
Studies show that the most effective way to manage PMS is through
2. stress control and sensible levels of diet and exercise
Studies of attitudes toward menstruation indicate that
4. there are widespread cultural stereotypes about menstruation
When Ruble (1977) led undergraduate female subjects to believe (on a random basis) that they were either premenstrual or intermenstrual, when all of them were actually in the 21st or 22nd day of their menstrual cycles,
1. women who believed they were premenstrual reported more premenstrual symptoms than did those who believed they were intermenstrual
Studies of the relationship between "social time" and mood have shown that
1. the "day of the week" effect is stronger for college males than for college females
Medical research on pregnancy often seems
1. based on the notion that the pregnant woman is disabled
"The Acouvade syndrome"
1. refers to expectant fathers suffering from physical symptoms during their wives' pregnancy or labor
The existence of pseudocyesis and the couvade syndrome demonstrates that
1. there is a complex interaction of hormones and social emotional factors in the production of physical symptoms
During the past century, changes in our culture with regard to childbirth
3. reflect a decreasing emphasis on childbirth as a spiritual or social process in favor of a physical/mechanical approach governed by medical procedures
In the United States, women who seek abortions
3. are most likely to be white and non-Hispanic
Studies of the values and beliefs of activists on both sides of the abortion controversy show that a major difference between pro-choice and antiabortion activists is that
3. religion is much more central to the lives of the latter than to the lives of the former
Attitudes toward menopause
2. among premenopausal women are predictive of their experience of menopause
The lowered levels of estrogen that begin at menopause
3. reduce a protective effect that younger women enjoy against osteoporosis
The facts concerning physical vulnerability and mortality allow us to predict with some confidence that
1. among people who live to be 100, there may be as many as four females for every male
Studies of gender differences in physical and mental health indicate that females, in comparison to males,
4. experience higher rates of depression and agoraphobia
Research on the response of young women and men to resistance training (training with weights) shows that
3. women and men achieve similar increases in muscle size, and women make relatively greater gains in strength
With respect to mental illness,
4. none of the above
1. men are more likely than women to be treated with drugs for their mental problems
2. it is only among the unmarried that women are more likely than men to receive psychiatric treatment
3. women are much more likely than men to be treated for schizophrenia
Gender differences in talking about and seeking treatment for symptoms of mental illness are often used to illustrate
3. the impact of gender roles on mental health
Research on the impact of physical exercise on women's health shows that
1. regular exercise is critical in building bone density to avoid osteoporosis
Health and the behaviors that maintain it differentiate men and women in that
4. all of the above
1. over the past two to three decades, deaths from lung cancer linked to smoking have increased much more rapidly for women than for men
2. men make less use of preventative health care services than women do
3. men are less knowledgeable and less interested in health than are women
An examination of the politics of health research illustrates a general pattern of political influence in both those who are selected for clinical studies and the research dollars allocated. Basically, this general pattern has been
4. both (b) and (c)
2. one that has often excluded women and minority groups in general from large scale clinical trials
3. one that now includes both an official policy and a set of guidelines requiring demographically appropriate representations of women and minorities
Among married people, the rate of mental illness
4. all of the above
1. for women and men respectively is the reverse of that among single people
2. is considerably higher for women than for men
3. suggests that marriage is a hazard for women, a protection for men
Researchers trying to explain male-female differences in depression have
3. noted that female ruminative and male distractive activities are associated with the gender differences
Of two different kinds of disorders, in the first one, men outnumber women 3 to 1; in the second one, women outnumber men 3 to 1. The first and second are, respectively,
1. alcoholism and agoraphobia
A lack of ethical or moral sensitivity and the absence of guilt or anxiety about "hurting others" are the characteristics of
1. antisocial personality, a disorder more common among men than women
Using the Scale of Sexist Events (SSE), researchers studying women's experience of sexist treatment found that
3. white women and women of color reported similar kinds of sexist discrimination, but women of color reported significantly more sexist discrimination than white women did
With respect to seeking and receiving treatment for mental illness or emotional problems,
3. both male and female clients may encounter gender biased therapists
When clients seeking therapy are minority or low income women, they may find themselves facing
4. white therapists who often ignore causes of emotional distress related to poor health, unsafe homes and neighborhoods, and racial discrimination
Research on parent-child interactions from more than 100 societies has confirmed that
1. boys are more strongly pressured in the direction of self reliance, achievement, and independence than girls are
Studies of boys' and girls' environments show that
2. boys are given more sports equipment and vehicles, while girls have more dolls and children's furniture
Studies of the content of children's television indicate that
2. females are numerically underrepresented and are more likely than males to be portrayed as inactive or passive
Analyses of music videos shown on MTV have demonstrated that
2. women tend to be portrayed in sexual and subservient ways
In typical portrayals of females and males in children's books,
3. males are still typically portrayed as adventurous and competent, while females are depicted as fearful and incompetent
In children's learning about gender, the English language
3. helps to promote the formation of an assumption that the male is normative
With respect to gender differences in patterns of friendship and of achievement,
1. girls tend to have fewer, more intense friendships than boys
In adolescence, there is evidence that personal relationships
1. are more important to girls than to boys
During middle and late adolescence, romantic attachments
3. to members of the other sex become important to both females and males, often even among those who will ultimately identify themselves as gay or lesbian
For a young woman, forming a positive identity as a lesbian
2. may be complicated by the intersection of sexual identity with ethnic, religious, or other aspects of identity
With respect to self confidence and expectations for success,
1. there is a tendency, in white, middle class groups, for boys to have higher achievement expectations than girls do
In the area of performance and achievement expectations, including expectations for success,
1. much of the literature suggests that black females not enrolled in middle class type schools have higher career expectations than both black males and white females
Studies of the ways teachers encourage girls and boys to react to their own mistakes indicate that
3. a boy giving the wrong answer is encouraged to keep trying
With respect to the stereotype that males tend to be task oriented while females tend to be person oriented in their performance motivation,
1. research suggests that person orientation may actually interfere more with male than with female achievement in some situations
With respect to the use of computer technology, studies show that
3. boys like computers more than girls do at every grade level
One study of the rankings given by adolescents to things that are important in relationships found that
1. males ranked the importance of the expression of control highest and the expression of affection lowest, while the reverse was true for females
A major gender difference among same-sex friends in middle or later years is the tendency for
2. men's friendships to focus on shared activities, women's on emotional intimacy
A tendency to see female friendliness as an indication of sexual interest
4. is more common among men than women
According to the discussion of couple relationships in the text's chapter on "Family and Friends", one of the most basic and important influences on the structure and functioning of any couple relationship is
4. gender
The stereotype that, in terms of attracting women, "nice guys finish last"
3. has been undercut by research showing that women are more attracted to men who are kind and sympathetic than to men who appear less caring
One of the most striking differences among the relationships of gay men, lesbians, and heterosexual couples occurs in the
1. lower tendency toward sexual exclusivity in gay male couples
The major correlates of relationship quality that predict relationship satisfaction across different groups of couples do not include
2. personal commitment to fidelity in the relationship
In answering the question, "How do partners decide how satisfactory their relationship is?" researchers have shown that
1. the ratio of each partner's perceived contributions to perceived rewards predicts marital satisfaction
In a relationship, the "principle of least interest" refers to the idea that
1. the person who needs the relationship least has the most power
Researchers studying power in intimate relationships have found that
4. couple members who saw themselves as having less power were more likely to be unilateral and indirect in trying to get their way
Studies of gender differences in loneliness show that
3. lonely males are more likely than lonely females to suffer from negative mood and negative self evaluations
With respect to housework, studies show that
2. at least under some conditions, African-American men spend more time doing household work than either Hispanic or Anglo men do
Studies of men who assault their wives show that
3. these men are often low in verbal assertiveness toward their spouses
With respect to parenthood, the set of social prescriptions and norms that limit women's choices and shape their experiences is called, by Adrienne Rich,
3. the institution of motherhood
Research on gender differences in parenting indicates that
2. from the beginning of a baby's life, fathers are more likely to be found playing with the baby, while mothers are more likely to be found feeding, changing, or cleaning the baby
With respect to the achievement of eminence, African American women
2. have less representation among the eminent than their European American counterparts
A "general personality disposition to strive for success in any situation where standards of excellence are applied" is a definition of
2. the achievement motive
Matina Horner's theory about fear of success was based on her idea that
3. a successful woman risks disapproval from others for being unfeminine
Examinations of the power motive in women and men have concluded that
3. women and men do not differ in their power motive scores under neutral conditions
When asked explicitly about what power means to them,
4. both women and men include themes of influence over others and achievement/self worth in their definitions
In examinations of gender differences in access to various categories of resources, the findings reveal
2. that differences still persist; for example, that women are much more likely than men to live below the poverty line
In examining women's and men's degree of access to such resources as political power, the text noted that
4. some of the disapproval of women's struggle for equal access to resources has come from other women
Susan wants Joe to fix her car for her. Instead of coming right out and asking him to do so, she "casually" mentions that she is bothered that the car is not working right. The influence strategy she is using is
3. indirect
Research on influence strategies stereotypically associated with gender shows that coercion based on resources such as money, and the direct use of informational power, were
2. expected more of male influencers than of female influencers
When questioned about what influence strategies they prefer,
2. both women and men rank "use reason and logic" as their most preferred strategy
It is easier to use direct modes of influence when
1. we perceive our demands as legitimate
One of the most critical determinants of power and success in organizations is something that, according to research, tends to hinder women's advancement more than that of men. This is access to
2. informal power based on reciprocation of favors and sharing of information
According to the text, hierarchical gender differences maintained through the communication of power related cues may be particularly resistant to change because
3. many power related cues lie outside of awareness so people often do not realize they are communicating them
If a woman working in an organization dominated by men realizes that one of her male coworkers is taking credit for her performance while devaluing her to others and also increasing his social distance from her, she may try to improve the situation by complying with his ideas. According to the theory of the metamorphic effects of power, her reaction will probably
2. increase his sense of superiority
According to Kipnis's model of the metamorphic effects of power,
1. a powerful person gains an inflated sense of self-worth because of the compliance s/he experiences from others
Statistics on women's entry into male dominated professions show all but one of the following. Indicate the exception.
4. women earn less than 30 percent of all masters' degrees
The typical woman holding a secretarial position
3. is 35 years old, married, and economically responsible for children
Women in blue-collar jobs are
3. unlikely to have female peers on the job
The concept of the glass escalator describes:
1. a systematic set of hidden advantages for men in female-dominated occupations
Which of the following is not true regarding women in the military?
4. most of the legislative restrictions women serving in the military have been eliminated
Studies of prejudice and discrimination against female managers show that
3. female managers with the same qualifications as men in terms of experience, education, and willingness to relocate still receive lower salary increases than men
In the study in which women were interviewed by men whom they were led to believe held either traditional or non-stereotypical views of women,
3. women who thought they were being interviewed by traditional men dressed and behaved in a more "feminine" manner
The difficulties that beset women and men who are "tokens" in their jobs often derive from the fact that
4. the token status places them in a particularly visible, and thus vulnerable, position
Comparative studies of male and female "tokens" show that
2. token men are not as likely as token women to experience negative consequences such as feeling extremely visible and not being accepted by peers
With respect to the sharing of breadwinner and domestic roles, studies have shown that
3. even the most highly-paid female executives report that it is very important to have a supportive spouse
Adjustments that companies must make in order to support gender equality at work include
2. recognizing that few employees of either gender can make career decisions independent of family considerations
For women, the economic consequences of giving up employment while raising children
1. would often mean serious economic strain for the family
The two forms of sexual harassment are known legally as
3. quid pro quo and hostile environment
The reasonable woman standard is a standard by which
3. the hostility of a workplace is judged
Research on romantic relationships in the workplace indicates all but one of the following. Pick the exception.
4. most male executives sooner or later have an affair with a woman in the office
Studies have shown that women's standards of what is fair pay for themselves
a) are lower than those of men
When women and men are allocating rewards to other people, which of the following situational variables has been found to have a crucial relationship to the pattern of gender differences?
b) whether people were dividing a shared reward between themselves and a partner or were allocating independent rewards between themselves and a partner
One practical effect of gender differences in the sense of personal entitlement is that
b) women may receive low salaries partly because they expect and request lower salaries than men do
Gender differences in feelings of personal entitlement
c) disappear when the situation is structured in particular ways
The impact of the belief in a just world on the acceptance of sex discrimination is reflected in
c) the argument that women deserve less pay because their work is less valuable
Carol Gilligan began her research into a theory of moral development partly because previous
b) research had used males as the standard for what is humanly normal
Carol Gilligan's research on moral development led her to suggest that
d) in moral reasoning, men place more emphasis on rights and women place more emphasis on care
Walker's longitudinal study of care and justice orientations used participants aged 5 to 63 years, each interviewed twice, two years apart. He showed
c) that for both women and men, personal real life dilemmas were strongly associated with the use of care orientation
With respect to the legal system in the United States and Canada,
b) by 1997 there were still at least three times as many men as women in the legal profession
A problem in developing ways to promote gender equality under the law is that
c) there is disagreement about which legal distinctions between the sexes, if any, should be preserved under the law
An aspect of criminal law that has been and continues to be the target of much criticism for its inequitable treatment of men and women is the legal area concerned with
c) the selling of sex for money
Which of the following is not a way in which gender prejudice has traditionally played a role in the legal system's treatment of victims?
a) the law has always required that a man obtain explicit voluntary agreement from a woman before engaging in sex with her
The strategy of "recognizing differences" in the quest for equality between women and men rests on the idea that
a) the workplace should not be structured for men, with women forced to adjust if they want to succeed
Using tactics that challenge the doctors' place at the top of the medical hierarchy, starting health information services and self care clinics to make people less dependent on medical experts for their health, are given in the "Justice and Social Change" chapter as examples of the
c) kinds of transformational approaches to social change that significant reductions in gender bias may require
The legal system has interacted with gender stereotypes by:
h) restricting women's rights and resources, thus maintaining certain power differences and behavioral differences between the genders
For centuries, theories of gender inside and outside of psychology reflected a motif
depicting women as defective men
A requirement for a good and useful theory is that it
be subject to verification
According to Sigmund Freud, the Electra complex
involves a general sense of jealousy evolving from penis envy
A large number of Freud's female patients told him that they had been seduced by their fathers. Freud reported in his public writings that
the women's accounts were based on fantasies
In her later work, Karen Horney rejected the notion that human behavior springs from instinctual drives such as sex and aggression, and developed instead the notion that
human beings are guided by needs for safety and satisfaction
Some theorists, such as Nancy Chodorow, have argued that family and parenting arrangements make it more difficult for boys than for girls to form a proper gender identity. According to these theorists, this difficulty stems from
the fact that boys, like girls, initially identify with the mother
The individual's private experience of the self as male or female refers to
gender identity
According to Nancy Henley's research on nonverbal communication,
differences in nonverbal communication between women and men parallel those between less powerful and more powerful people
The set of theories that postulates a genetic basis for behavioral differences between the sexes is composed of
the evolutionary theories such as those that functionalists and sociobiologists advocate
Social learning theory suggests that both gender identity and gender role are developed
by observing and imitating adult and peer models
David Lynn's theory, which combines aspects of the psychoanalytic and social learning approaches, is based on the notion that
in our society, boys learn to identify not with the father but with a stereotypic masculine role
Portraying the child as actively searching, seeking out gender information rather than being passively shaped by environmental forces, reflects the viewpoint of
cognitive development theory
According to the cognitive developmental approach,
as soon as children become aware that there are two sexes, they understand that gender categories are permanent
The general types of theories that place a strong emphasis on the processes governing the childhood development of gender identity and gender roles include
social learning and cognitive developmental theories
The interactive model of gender-related behavior
The interactive model of gender-related behavior
Helen Thompson (Woolley), who, at the turn of the century, carried out the first systematic comparison of women and men on a variety of abilities in a controlled lab setting, found
the distribution curve of scores on any particular test for women overlapped almost completely with the distribution curve of the same scores for men
The two basic questions for research on sex and gender focus on
what male-female differences exist, and why
No matter what research method is used, all data on sex differences and similarities are essentially
correlational data
An examination of the social psychology of psychological experiments in the area of sex and gender indicates that
sex of the experimenter effects can contaminate findings on sex and gender in a wide range of psychological research
In "Why Gender Differences Exist", the text notes that research typically leads to the conclusion that
neither biological nor environmental factors are the sole cause of an observed male-female difference
In looking at nature and nurture to explore the origins of gender differences, the meaningful question is:
In what ways do heredity and environment interact to produce female-male similarities and differences?
Animal research is useful for understanding sex and gender because
it is easier to control genetics and environment of animals in a lab situation than it is to control such factors for humans
In general, sexism in research on gender
may begin with the concepts used to formulate the research questions
Researchers who want to be sensitive to cultural diversity must keep in mind that
members of different cultural or ethnic groups may not interpret research questions in the same ways
Accepting achievement as a "success outside the home", responsibility as "taking charge", and bravery as "facing battle" all illustrate the definition of variables in ways that are
androcentric
Which of the following is an example of anthropomorphism?
use of the word "harem" to describe animal groups consisting of one male and many females
When reading in the popular press about research findings on gender, readers should be mindful of the
possibility that the coverage may reflect the distillation of the most dramatic conclusions from a more complex set of findings
The significant increase in psychological research articles dealing with gender and the adoption of guidelines for nonsexist research support the claim that
getting more women into science changes science
When we focus on the question of where our knowledge about gender comes from, we find that
no pure and uncontaminated sources of such knowledge exist
Sex stereotypes are
socially shared beliefs that certain qualities can be assigned to individuals, based on their maleness or femaleness
Research by Deaux and Lewis on different components of gender stereotypes indicates that
sex stereotypes are an expression of the perceived probability that a person will have certain qualities, given that s/he is female or male
Benevolent sexism
can be characterized by protective paternalism, idealization of women, and desire for intimate relations
Researchers studying the way women's and men's work is evaluated find that
when differences are found in the evaluations of women's and men's work, the differences tend to favor men
Research has shown that occupations that go through a transition from being dominated by men to being dominated by women
lose status
With respect to gender roles, Latina women
have traditionally faced an ideal of femininity that glorified motherhood, subservience, and long suffering endurance
Gender stereotypes
interact with race and class stereotypes
With respect to their own self-evaluations, a difficulty faced by women of color in North America is that
they are surrounded by a culture in which the predominant images of feminine beauty presented in the media are white
A schema is
a knowledge structure that guides the way a person processes information
The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) differs from earlier tests of masculinityBfemininity in that
it treats femininity and masculinity as two separate, independent dimensions
A meta-analysis of empathy research showed that:
gender differences in empathy seem to depend on the method used to measure empathy
One qualification to the general finding of greater male than female aggression is that
when boys and girls are similarly rewarded for aggressive behaviors, girls are as aggressive as boys are
A national survey found no difference between women and men in their rates of physically abusing children. In light of the more general finding that men behave more aggressively than women, this result probably means that
a minority of women have been socialized, as many men have, to use violence as a way of taking control and solving problems.
Research on influenceability has shown that
females are somewhat more easily influenced than males; however, the gender difference is quite small
Researchers studying dominance have found that, in mixed-gender groups or pairs,
men tend to dominate conversations by talking more than women and by interrupting or ignoring them
Butler and Geis's (1990) study of reactions to female and male leaders showed that
when making equivalent contributions to group discussions, male leaders received more smiles and fewer frowns than female leaders
Research on men's and women's responses to infants shows that
gender differences in reactions to infants are more likely to show up when people know they are being observed and evaluated
Eisenberg and Lennon (1983), who reviewed the research on gender differences in empathy, concluded that
the gender difference in empathy was most evident in studies where it was most obvious to the participants that empathy was being measured
One of the reasons that behavioral gender differences in the laboratory may seem smaller than such differences in real life is that
in the lab, psychologists have minimized the impact of social context
A reason that casual observers sometimes perceive gender differences in behavior as larger than indicated by research is that
people tend to notice and remember behavior that confirms their stereotypes
Some researchers have argued that gender differences in dominance are linked to gender differences in aggression, and may thus have a biological basis. A problem with this argument is that
many forms of dominance in human society do not involve aggression
The biological categories "female" and "male" have been shown to
be completely distinct
During the first five weeks after conception, for XX and XY embryos,
anatomical development seems to be identical
Among individuals with abnormalities in their sex chromosomal makeup (extra or missing chromosomes), which of the following is true?
As long as there is at least one Y chromosome present, the body type will tend to develop as male unless some later factor interferes
Analysis of hormones from the umbilical cords of infants at the time of birth found that females and males differed in
only one, testosterone
If testosterone is injected into a newborn female rat,
the rat fails to show female sexual receptivity in adulthood
When the adrenal glands of the fetus malfunction, resulting in excess release of androgens from the prenatal period onward, the stage is set for
certain masculinizing effects
In one study of fetally androgenized females and males, Ehrhardt and Baker (1974) found that androgenized females tended to differ from their nonandrogenized female comparison group in all but one of the following. Select the exception.
acceptance of female gender identity
The most consistent findings for CAH girls is
a higher probability of male-typical "rough" play
n the Imperato-McGinley study of a population of male intersexed males in the Dominican Republic, the researchers found that
most of the subjects reared as females changed to a male gender identity at adolescence
Research on hormonal influence on sexual orientation suggests that:
for girls, but not for boys, early exposure to androgens is linked to more masculine-typed activity and toy choices.
Evidence for relationships between neonatal hormone levels and individual differences (as opposed to sex differences) in behavior suggests that
higher levels of progesterone and testosterone are associated with lower levels of timidity in males but not in females
Richard Urdry proposed that exposure to high levels of androgens would possibly make women less feminine in their behavior because:
androgens make such women less responsive to their mothers’ efforts to socialize them towards femininity.
The link between circulating androgens and aggression is, for the most part,
still somewhat tenuous, and is probably not a one-way cause-and-effect relationship
In testing and reviewing the variability hypothesis, Hollingworth's research on female-male differences in mental traits
# discredited the notion of gender differences in variability
Leta Hollingworth, doing research in the 1920s, believed that the preponderance of males in institutions for the mentally retarded could be explained by
social factors
Studies of gender differences in auditory threshold indicate that
both (a) and (b)

# women have better high-frequency hearing than men do
# females react more strongly than males to sound intensity
Studies of learning and memory indicate that
most studies show no gender differences in learning and memory
Recent meta-analytic studies of gender differences in mathematics performance have shown that
the gender gap in mathematics performance is decreasing and is often negligible
Cross-cultural studies of mathematics performance
often do not show the same pattern of males outperforming females in mathematics that is found in the United States
The cognitive performance task on which researchers Linn and Petersen reported finding strong gender differences
was a type of spatial performance called mental rotation of figures
In seeking to explain observed gender differences in performance on some cognitive tasks, researchers favoring biological approaches
have provided some evidence for changes in cognitive performance associated with changes in the menstrual cycle
It was proposed by Levy that gender differences in spatial ability are due to
greater hemispheric lateralization of spatial skills among men than among women
According to Kimura's research with brain-damaged persons,
both (b) and (c)

# there are wide individual variations in brain organization within each sex
# sex is only one of several individual-difference variables correlated with brain organization
Nora Newcombe and Mary Bandura investigated the link among the timing of puberty, spatial performance, personality traits, and lateralization of abilities. They found that
later maturation was linked to good spatial performance and to stereotypically masculine personality traits
Studies of the link between a child's environment and performance on visual/spatial tasks have shown that
a substantial percentage of male-female differences in spatial performance among elementary school children can be accounted for by differences in the availability of "masculine" toys in their home
The belief that mathematics is a male domain has been shown to
relate to females' lower self-confidence in learning math
Research on the expectations for success in mathematics that others hold for girls indicates that
teachers have generally lower expectations of female than male students in mathematics
Reflecting two different standards of sexual behavior for the two sexes, the double standard
encourages men to be sexual aggressors, women to be sexual gatekeepers
In regard to human sexuality, sexual drive and sexual responsiveness, evidence indicates that
there are strong similarities between male and female responses to sexual stimulation
Biases in the way that participants were selected for Masters and Johnson's research include
only about 2 percent of men experience occasional difficulty in getting an erection
Surveys of the frequency of premarital heterosexual intercourse show that
three-quarters of young women have had intercourse by age 20
Recently, a large University of Chicago survey found that, with respect to homosexual activity,
about 4 percent of women and 5 percent of men said they had engaged in sex with a person of their own sex since the age of 18
Surveys on the use of contraception among sexually active adolescents show that
about 75 percent of sexually active American single males and females under 21 say they use contraception all or nearly all the time
Recent surveys of sexuality among older adults indicate that
# both (a) and (b)
# more women in their fifties report that they "usually" have orgasms during sex with their partners than do women in the earlier decades of life
# while only one-third of men in their seventies report that they are not having partnered sex, 70 percent of women in this age group report no partnered sex in the past year
Studies of values in heterosexual relationships indicate that
women and men do not differ in the value they place on attachment
Research suggests that a refusal to acknowledge sexual arousal may be associated, for women,
with the tendency to regard sex as "forbidden"
Studies of the incidence of rape show that
rape is one of the most underreported crimes
In studies of coercive sexuality, it has been demonstrated that
women whose socialization does not reflect the traditional feminine image are more successful at avoiding attempted rape
Individuals' preferences for sexual partners of the same and/or other sex can make them the objects of stigmas such as homophobia. In North America, being the target of homophobia would be most likely for
males who are homosexual
In our culture, women's reproductive anatomy and physiology
has often been considered a source of danger to their physical and emotional health
Which of the following is not true of the fourth and final stage of the menstrual cycle?
the follicle ruptures to release the mature egg
Studies of the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and performance indicate that
women believe that they perform more poorly during the menstrual and premenstrual phases
PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) is
a poorly defined set of premenstrual physical and psychological symptoms that occurs in a small proportion of women
Research on women's experience of menarche shows that
a substantial number of women recall it as a negative event
Studies of the relationship between stereotypic beliefs about menstruation and the experience of menstrual symptoms have shown that
the more a woman believes in the phenomenon of menstrual distress, the more exaggerated her recollection of menstrual symptoms is likely to be
Research on the physical symptoms associated with pregnancy indicate that
there is tremendous variation among women in such symptoms
Research on pregnancy as a social stimulus suggests that
there is a tendency for people to avoid and to stare at pregnant women
Pseudocyesis refers to
the experience of pregnancy symptoms by a person who is not pregnant
Expectant fathers
frequently report finding their pregnant wives attractive
The medical model of menopause
views menopause as a disease of estrogen deficiency, much like diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency
Regarding culturally accepted gender roles in the context of mental and physical health, traits such as weakness, delicacy, and vulnerability as opposed to others such as strength, toughness, and invulnerability, are associated with
femininity as opposed to masculinity
In developing countries, some causes of the patterns of gender differences in health and illness may be gleaned by noting
which sex is more likely to be poor, to have the responsibility of childbearing, and to have less status
The leading cause(s) of death among American women is (are)
heart disease and cancer
Of two types of illness symptoms reported: (1) headaches, urinary problems, abdominal pain, weight problems OR (2) ulcers, asthma, eye problems, the first type typically represents __________, the latter type ___________.
females; males
Gender differences in life expectancy and susceptibility to a variety of serious diseases can be explained in part by the fact that
a number of serious disorders are sex linked and inherited
Certain social/environmental variables that are related to health and longevity are also related to gender. Concerning these variables, researchers now hypothesize that
feminine ideals of expressiveness and intimacy may help women avoid stress-generating patterns of competitiveness
Studies of the socioeconomic risk factors as they relate to gender and physical health indicate that, at least in the United States,
the risk of sudden death by heart attack is greater for black women than it is for any other group
Studies of doctor-patient interaction have found that
women have to work harder than men do to extract information from male doctors
Studies of health among elderly adults indicate that
all of the above

# elderly men are more likely than elderly women to live in nursing homes
# elderly women report more trouble with daily living activities and they are more likely than men to receive help with these activities
# during a visit to the doctor, elderly women are more likely than their male counterparts to be seen for less than 10 minutes and to be prescribed drugs
With respect to rates of depression in the United States, all but one of the following are true. Indicate the exception:
while women are more likely than men to experience depression, men are more likely than women to have their depression diagnosed and treated
Of the various categories of mental/physical illness reviewed in the text, the one that is most nearly comprised only of women is
anorexia nervosa and bulimia
Sexism in therapy and the gender biased politics of diagnosis
are similar problems in that both the therapist and the diagnostic criteria may reify and perpetuate gender stereotypes
Based upon the research concerned with sex, gender, and childhood, the impact of gender roles and rules
is readily demonstrable in children's fantasies as early as 3 years of age
Researchers who interviewed first-time parents within 24 hours after childbirth found that
parents saw daughters as softer and sons as stronger
One large part of the impact of typical TV gender roles and rules on the child's social world is that
children learn to expect from TV characterizations that males are brave, dominant, and intelligent
With respect to gender stereotyping and video games,
most games are oriented toward a hypermasculine stereotype
When researchers examined the creative writing of children from grades 1 to 6 attending a "young authors conference", they found that
in stories written by both boys and girls, male characters outnumbered females
In contrast to traditional theorists, contemporary theorists concerned with the development of a sense of self have emphasized both the ______________________ aspects of development.
separateness and self in relation
Studies of childhood friendship suggest that
# for boys in particular, the same sex peer group plays an important role in reinforcing masculine gender identity and male dominance behavior
Physically maturing earlier than one's peers during adolescence
is linked, for both sexes, to increased pressures in the direction of cultural gender role expectations
One model of identity formation for young women and men moving toward an identity as lesbian or gay proposes a series of six steps, with the process as a whole
involving a gradual movement from denial and social alienation toward an embracing of the new identity as valid
The literature on the effects of maternal employment indicates that
as early as kindergarten and first grade, girls and boys with employed mothers show less gender stereotypic vocational aspirations than do children of non-employed mothers
Findings from a major study of female-male changes in self esteem between 4th and 10th grades
clearly indicated that many more African American girls maintained higher self esteem than did their European American or Hispanic counterparts
Studies of the way girls and boys are treated in the classroom indicate that
differences in treatment lead to relatively more feelings of control among boys than girls
Learning at an early age either that intimate, self disclosing friendships are appropriate and rewarding, or that too much intimacy with others of the same sex is not appropriate describes one aspect of socialization into
feminine and masculine patterns of behavior, respectively
Close relationships among same-sex friends are, according to evidence available,
less expressive of emotional intimacy for male than for female friendships
Potential barriers to emotional intimacy between men in American culture are
an aura of competition and homophobia
Cross sex friendships
all of the above

# are more likely to be reported by young adults than by middle aged and older adults.
# tend to be experienced, according to some researchers, as less satisfactory than same sex friendships, especially by women.
# tend to perceived more by males than females, as involving sexual interest.
Studies of gender differences among married couples in the characteristics considered desirable in a mate showed that women rated the following qualities as more desirable than men did:
honest, dependable, and ambitious
With respect to communication within intimate couples,
women ask more questions and indicate more attention and interest than men do
Arguing about money management, intrusion of work into the relationship, and spending much time apart are linked, in all types of couples, to
poor relationship quality
With regard to marital satisfaction, researchers have found that
marital conflict is more strongly related (negatively) to wives' than to husbands' feelings of love for their spouse
Which of the following is not one of the resources on which power is based, according to French and Raven?
self-consciousness
In intimate relationships, influence may be exerted through open requests or orders on the one hand, or through sneaky manipulations on the other; it may also be exerted by walking out on the other person on the one hand, or by staying to argue or bargain on the other. These tactics are representative of
directness (direct/indirect) and interactiveness (unilateral/bilateral) dimensions, respectively
Researchers who compared the use of "weak" (manipulation, supplication) and "strong" (bullying, autocracy) power strategies in intimate couples found that
both females and males with male partners were more likely to use the weak influence strategies than were females and males with female partners
Studies of widows and widowers find that widowed women are
more likely to report greater life satisfaction than widowed men do
Marital violence in the form of wife battering
is typically justified by the husband on the grounds of his wife's behavior, his own uncontrollable anger, or by reference to established norms and customs
Recent studies of male batterers suggest that
there are three different types of male batterers, and different factors may be linked to violent behavior for each group
Comparisons of the motherhood role across cultures show that
both (a) and (c)

the motherhood role may be institutionalized differently in different cultures

and

n Japan, in contrast to some other cultures, the role of mother has traditionally been associated with independence and power