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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe 2 general classes of exocrine gland secretion
1. mucous glands: secrete mucinogens

2. serous glands: secrete serous fluid

*may also have a mixed gland w/both types
What is the difference btwn mucinogens and serous fluid?
mucinogens= large glycoproteins that forma viscous lubricant (mucin) when hydrated, major component of mucous

serous fluid= watery fluid rich in enzymes, enzymes vary depending on specific gland
Explain 3 exocrine gland modes of secretion
1. merocrine: release via exocytosis
*most common

2. holocrine: released at wHOLe cell
*ex: sebaceous gland of hair follicle

3. apocrine: cleavage released apical portion of cell w/ content
*ex: lactating mammary gland, some sweat gland
Describe structural characteristics of unicellular & multicellular glands
unicellular: single secretory cell
ex: goblet cell

mulicellular: multiple secretory cells w/i gland
vary in shape-
-acinus/alveolus (spherical)
-tubulo-acinar (combination of an acinus & tubule w/i one secretory unit)
vary in branching-
-simple (single duct/unbranched)
-compound (glands w/ branched ducts)
Compound tubulo-acinar glands are multi-branched glands with tubular secretory portions that often end in ____________

*both types of secretory units present
Compound acinar/tubular glands have mutiple acini/tubular secretory portions, each emptying into what?
an intercalated duct
Several intercalated ducts will merge to form ____________

These structures will drain into ____________
striated intralobular ducts

interlobular/excretory ducts
Striated intralobular ducts have _____________, which originate from the basal surface of the cuboid cells, arising from _____________ w/ many mitochondria.

What do these cuboid cells do?
radial striations

membrane folds

reabsorp Na+ from duct lumen & secrete enzyme into it
Differentiate btwn the following:
connective tissue septa-
lobules- subdivisions of a compound gland, each possessing many secretory units

connective tissue septa- separate the lobules

parenchyma- glandular tissue w/i lobule

stroma- connective tissue that forms supportive framework for parenchyma
Explain salivary gland functions
Lubrication- via water & glycoproteins (mucous cells)

Solvent- for substances that excite taste buds

Carb. digestion- via amylase in saliva

Anti-bacterial- via lysozyme

Immunological defense- via immunoglobins bound to secretory components which resist enzymatic digestion
A ______________, composed of collagenous ct, surround each of the major salivary glands

*extensions form interlobular septa
Describe the identifying characteristics of major named salivary glands
1. Parotid gland
inferior & anterior to ears
*compound acinar
*serous only
*well developed capsule w/ many lymphoid cells that produce immunoglobulin

2. Submandibular (submaxillary gland)
either side of floor of mouth
mixed compound tubulo-acinar
*majority serous, some mucous

3. Sublingual gland
floor of mouth, duct may join submandibular gland
mixed compound tubulo-acinar
*majority mucous, also serous (in serous demilunes)
Describe exocrine pancreas structure
*lies posterior to peritoneum along posterior abdominal wall
-clusters of endocrine (Islets of langerhans) w/ exocrine (compound acinar, serous only)
What type of compound acinar is exclusive to the exocrine pancreas?

What gland type is very similar to the exocrine pancreas?
centroacinar cells
-pale centers represent beginning of intracalated duct, striated ducts NOT present

similar to parotid gland
What are the major secretions of the exocrine pancreas?
water ions, digestive enzymes, & proenzymes
How are pancreatic secretions controlled by the following:
vagus nerve
cholecystokinin- induces cells to release their enzymes
(hormone produced by duodenal enteroendocrine cells)

secretin- promotes secretion of large quantities of bicarb-rich, enzyme poor fluid, used to optimize pH in small intestine, coordinated action with cholecystokinin for final secretory product
(hormone produced by duodenal eneteroendocrine cells)

vagus nerve- nervous control of secretions, secondary to hormonal control