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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Brand value

Net present value of brand earning

Customer based definition

A brand is a set of mental association, held by the consumer, which adds to the perceived value of a product or service

Brand as a conditional asset

States that brand cannot exist without a support (product or service)

The legal perspective

A sign or a set of signs certifying the origin of a product or service and differentating it from the competition

Influence buyers

What makes a name become a brand are the saliency, intensity and trist attached to the association of the name


Exists in the minds of the customers and is defined as: a label, designating ownership by a firm, which we experience, evaluate, have feeling towards and build associations with to perceive value. The power of a brand to influence perceptions can transform the experience of using the product. It is all the things that come to our mind when we think about a company or its products.

Spontaneous brand awareness

Related to brand salience, the first brand that comes to mind when mentioning a product to a customer

Brand awareness

The way which a brand is recognised and recalled by potential customers and they way the brand is correctly associated with a product.

Brand recognition

When someones sees something in a store and decides that they want it or are reminded that they need it. "Oh that's right, I need Pepsodent toothpaste"

Brand recall

When someone pulls the brand name out of memory in order to make the purchase. "Oh, I want to go to McDonalds"

Consumer involvement

Represents the personal relevance or importance that a product or brand has for an individual. It is the perceived relevance of an object based on one's needs, values and interests.
Three sources of importance for consumer involvement
The consumer, the product and the situation
Low involvement
Habitual deciosion - tea, toothbrush, washing powder. The brands in this category are very similar and choices are often made on 'top-of-the-mind' and the common process is: Awareness --> Trial --> Repeat purchase

Some involvement

Simple decisions - skin cream, snacks, flashlight

High involvement

Lengthy decisions - Cars, diamonds and property.


Can be a primary influence on the development of preferences and sometimes actually precedes cognition. Emotion based chose is holistic, self-focused and not capable of being verbalised. The full impact of emotions are only realised when they are sensed and become 'feelings'

Primary emotions

Surprise, anger, fear, disgust, sadness and joy.
Secondaty emotions
Are learn though experience, for example embarrassment and guilt.
Emotional brand associations
Determines what informations is potentially available for recall when making brand choice decisions.
Emotional significance
Influences how much attention is paid on the brand and how much someone will elaborate upon the brands ignificance.

Symbolic consumption

Once a brand's ability to satisfy mere physical needs is trancended, we enter the real of the symbolic meaning of goods.

Preference formation

The way by which we form our preferences.

Self illusion (preference formation)

Imagination and fantasy can overwhelm reason and consumers can create their own reality.

Self focus (preference formations)

Our assessment is more about us than it is about what is being asses. When evaluation an item of clothing the conumser is likely to be imagining how they would look in the clothing rather than features of the clothing itself.

Holistic perception

We reach an overall evaluation which need not to be traceable back to some component attribute. We orm opinions without being ale to present why. "There simply aren't very effective verbal means to communicate why we like people and object or what it is about them that we live".

Non-verbal imagery

Imagery has a potential unavailable to the more restricted channel of language. Eg. facial expressions and images. It is easier to soak and receive a visual message with meaning than a message in a written or oral way.

Refusal of other tastes

Preference may involve a negative emotional response, when we instead of choosing what we like, we refuse what we do not like.

Post hoc rationalisations (justification of emotion-driven choice)

When we are motivated to justify the choices we have already made, this is done to cope with post-decisional and/or post-purchase feeling of guilt, anxiety and regret.

Guilt, anxiety and regret (justification of emotion-driven choice)

A firm can use these emotions in their advantage, through implying that their product offers a solution to them (baby is sick, baby is well).

Hindsight bias and biased information search (justification of emotion-driven choice)

People search out information which support their desired outcome. After a high involvement purchase of a camera, the customer watches advertisements for an identical product that confirms their choice.

Emotional response

We can predict emotional response when we assume that some are grounded in mechanism which are not voluntary and are under only limited human control. We think or our emotions as having laws unto themselves ,but research suggests that our emotions do follow certain general rules.
The law of concern

The emotions arise in respons to events that are important to the indivudual's goals, motives or concerns. Theses events support or challenges our preferred sense of self (sense identity).

The law of apparent reality

The emotions are elicited by events appraised as real and their intensity varies according to the level of reality attributed. Knowing means less than seeing and feeling. It accounts for the weakness of reason as opposed to the strength of passions.

The law of closure

Emotions tend to be closed to probabilities and likelihoods, and to be absolut in their judgements and have control over the actions system. "I could kill him" "I cannot live without her"
The law of the lightest load
People tend to avoid and deny unpleasant knowledge and will seek to interpret a situation in a way which maximises emotional gain.
The postmodern consumer

Consumers do not make consumptions choices solely from products' utilities (what they do) but also from their symbolic meaning (what they communicate).


Communicates to us who we want to be or who we are.

Communicate to other people the person we wish to be seen as.

Lived experience

Practical activités and face-to-face encounters in our everyday lives. What we see as reality.

Mediated experience

The consumptions of media products allows us to experience events which are spatially and temporally distant from the practical context of daily life. Recontextualized experience: advertising, movies etc.

Brand identity

The sender side. The purpose is to specify the brands meaning, aim and self image. What is the vision and aim, what makes the brand different, what need(s) does it fulfil etc.

Brand image

On the receiver's side. Focuses on the way in which certain groups perceive a product, a brand, a political, a company or a country.