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35 Cards in this Set

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TRUE OR FALSE: Protons and Electrons have approximately the same mass.
FALSE. Protons and NEUTRONS have approximately the same mass.
What is Atomic Number (Z)?
The number of protons (if uncharged then the # of electrons as well but outside) in the nucleus.
What is Atomic Mass?
It is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom.
What are Isotopes?
Atoms of some elements that have 2+ different atomic masses.
What is Atomic Weight?
Atomic Weight is the weighted average of the atomic masses of the atom's naturally occurring isotopes.
What is the Atomic Mass Unit (amu)?
It is the mass of a proton or neutron in an atom.
1 mole is equal to how many atoms?
6.023e23 atoms
What are the two main Atomic Models?
1. Bohr atomic model
2. Wave-mechanical Model
What is the Bohr Atomic Model?
It is an atomic model in which electrons are assumed to revolve around the atomic nucleus in discrete orbitals.
What are the 2 main aspects of the Bohr Atomic Model?
1. Electron energies are quantized (specific energy states)
2. Electrons may change energy levels
What is the Wave-Mechanical Model?
Model in which the electron is considered to exhibit both wavelike and particlelike characteristics. Position is considered to be a probability of an electron's being at various locations around the nucleus.
What is Molecular Weight equal to? (Formula)
Mass over mole
What are Quantum Numbers?
A set of four numbers, the values of which are used to label possible electron states.
What does the Principle Quantum Number (n) specify?
Specifies shell. Usually numbers (1, 2, 3, 4...) but sometimes written as K, L, M, N...
What is the Primary Quantum Number related to in terms of the electron and the nucleus?
Primary Quantum Number is related to the distance of an electron from the nucleus, or its position.
What does the Second Quantum Number (l) specify?
Specifies subshell and is denoted by lowercase s, p, d, f
What is the Second Quantum Number related to in terms of electrons?
Second Quantum Number is related to the SHAPE of the electron subschell.
What does the Third Quantum Number (m) specify?
Specifies the number of energy states for each subschell. For s, there is one energy state, for p there is 3 energy states, d = 5 energy states and f = 7 energy states
What does the Fourth Quantum Number specify?
Specifies the spin moment of each electron (either up or down).
What two values can the Fourth Quantum Number be?
-0.5 and 0.5
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
Each electron state can hold no more than two electrons, which must have opposite spins.
The s, p, d, and f subshells can accommodate how many electrons, respectively?
s = 2 electrons
p = 6 electrons
d = 10 electrons
f = 14 electrons
What is Ground State?
State in which all the electrons occupy the lowest possible energies in accord with the foregoing restrictions.
What does the Electron Configuration represent?
It represents the manner in which energy states are occupied.
What are Valence Electrons?
Electrons that fill the outermost shell
What is the most stable electron configuration?
When the outermost shell is completely filled.
If the attractive and repulsive forces between two atoms are equal the atoms are said to be in what?
For many atoms the distance (r sub o) between them during equilibrium is what?
0.3 nm
What is E not?
It is the bonding energy or the energy required to break a bond.
What is Ionic Bonding?
It is bonding between metals and non-metals where one atom donates electrons and the other atom accepts electrons
In Ionic Bonding, what is the formula for the Attractive Energy?
-A/r where A is a constant
In Ionic Bonding, what is the formula for the Repulsive Energy?
B/r^n where B and are constants
What is Covalent Bonding?
Bonding between two non-metals where atoms share electrons.
# of covalent bonds can be determined by knowing what?
# of valence electrons
What is Metallic Bonding?
Bonding between metals and their alloys in which electrons are allowed to drift creating an electron cloud.