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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
population genetics
the study of the frequency and interaction of alleles and genes in populations
a group of similar looking organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring in the natural environment.
a collection of individuals of the same species in a given area whose members can breed with one another
mutation causes evolution by:
a small change that evolves very slowly over time
migration causes evolution by:
affecting species and others around it because of the change of location
sexual selection causes evolution by:
passing on genes that help for mating but don't help for survival
genetic drift causes evolution by:
a random change of frequency in genes
natural selection causes evolution by:
passing on genes that help for survival
What are the fundamental components of natural selection?
physical and behavioral characteristics:
overproduction-more than can survive, struggle to survive,
differential reproduction= survival of the fittest
What must occur in order for multiple species to evolve from a single parent species?
when two species evolve in response to each other (humming bird & plant)
Convergent evolution
when two species look/become similar and occupy similar niches but can never fuse (sugar glider & flying squirrel)
Divergent evolution
when two related groups become more different over time (dog & wolf)
What is adaptive radiation and what are some conditions that would lead to it?
A period of rapid speciation that can occur if it develops a characteristic that provides and overwhelming advantage, move into and area with little competition, or extinction of its competitors.
How would you go about classifying a group of organisms into the seven levels of hierarchical tax?
You would take the bottom up approach (species to genus, genera to family, etc.)
What evidence is used when constructing a phylogenetic tree?
common ancestor
How does a cladogram identify the relatedness of different species?
it groups them by shared derived characteristics(or clades)
What characteristics distinguish the six-kingdoms from each other?
Eubacteria- peptidoglycen
Archaebacteria- no peptidoglycen, diff. in metabolism & biochem.
Protista- too simple
Fungi- absorptive heterotrophs
Plantae- photoautotrophs
Animalia- ingestive heterotrophs, nervous & muscle tissue
Which kingdoms are included in each domain?
Domain Bacteria- kingdom Eubacteria
Domain Archaea- kingdom Archaebacteria
Domain Eukarya- kingdom animalia, plantae, fungi, and protista
Domain Bacteria
prokaryotic, cell walls, peptidoglycen, true bacteria
Domain Archaea
prokaryotic, cell walls, no peptidoglycen, early life forms
Domain Eukarya
eukaryotic cells