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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the three principles of cell theory?

1.) all living things are composed of cells

2.) cells are the basic unit of life

3.) new cells are produced by existing cells

What are the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotes have NO nucleus

Eukaryote HAVE nucleus

What is cytoplasm?

Is the portion of the cells outside the nucleus

Nucleus is the what of the cell

Control center

What do ribosomes do?

Make proteins

Proteins are assembled on ribosomes

What does the ER do?

Helps finish assembling proteins makes membranes

Rough ER and smooth ER

Rough works on proteins

Smooth makes membranes

What does the Golgi apparatus do?

Finishes sorts labels and ships proteins (ups or fed ex) ships proteins in vesicles (vehicles)

What do lysosomes do?

Digest food (used to make energy) clean up and recycle

What does the vacuole do?

Pumps excess water out fo the cell

What does the mitochondria do?

Power house of the cell

Converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

What does the chloroplasts do? And what cell are they in?

They capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis

What does cytoskeleton do?

A network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. It is also involved in movement

Where are centrioles found? And what do they do?

Located near the nucleus

Help organize cell division

What does the cell membrane do?

Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support

What does the cell wall do?

Protects the cell

What are solutes?

Substances dissolved in solution

What is diffusion?

Particles in a solution tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water through selectively permeable membranes




Hypertonic above strength

Hypotonic below strength

Isotonic same strength

What is endocytosis?

The process of taking material into the cell

What is exocytosis?

Materials are forced out of the cell

What is mitosis

Division of the cells nucleus

What is mitosis

Division of the cells nucleus

What is cytokinesis

Division of the cell cytoplasm

What are chromosomes

Genetic information is passed from one generation to the next before cell division each chromosome is duplicated or copied- consists of two identical “sister” chromatid- each pair of chromoatifs is attached at an area called the centromere

What is interphase

The period of growth that occurs between cell division

What is interphase

The period of growth that occurs between cell division

4 phases of cell cycle and define them

G1- the cell increases in size synthesizes new proteins and organelles

S phase- chromosomes are replicated DNA synthesis takes place once entered it usually completes the rest of the cycle

G2- organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced once complete the cell is ready to start m phase

M phase- mitosis

What are cyclins?

Group of closely related proteins that will regulate the cell cycle

Mitosis 4 phases and define them

Prophase-centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus chromatin- condenses into chromosomes and becomes visible - nuclear envelope breaks down

Metaphase- chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Anaphase- the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes- spindles directed by centrioles are used to pull the chromosomes apart

Telophase- chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape- a nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes


During cytokinesis what happens

The cytoplasm punches in half- each daughters cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes

Name the stuff in animal cells

Back (Definition)

Name the stuff in plant cells

Back (Definition)