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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 domains in evolutionary order
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
pyrococcus furiousus- domain?
optimal growth temp?
archaea- extreme temp environment
optimal growth at 100 degrees C
eukarya consists of what 5 kingdoms?
animal, plant, algae, fungi, protozoa
thermophilic archaebacteria are what domain
bacterial cell length
1-5 micrometers
eukaryotic cell length
10-100 micrometers
What restricts cell size- 3 factors
surface area/volume ratio
diffusion of molecules
maintenance of local concentration
cell tricks- refers to what
creation of compartments(organelles) to hide increased concentrations
T/F all organelles have a lipid bilayer
True, and all organelles are intracellular structures carrying out specific functions
lipid bilayer enclosing nucleus is connected to the _______
Endoplasmic reticulum
production of rRNA occurs where specifically?
gates for proteins and soluble materials to enter/exit the nucleus
nuclear pores
mitochondria have ___ (1/2/3?) bilayer membranes
mitochondrial structure includes 4 parts
1 outer membrane
2 intermembrane space
3 inner membrane; infoldings = cristae
4 the matrix
processes that occur in mitochondria
krebs cycle, respiration, atp production
oxygen is used to generate energy in the _______
what type of dna do mitochondria have
what separates rough from smooth ER?
ribosomes are only on the rough
T/F- Ribosomes severed from microsomes make first a smaller, processed protein and later
a longer form with signal sequence intact
T/F- Ribosomes severed from microsomes make first a longer, processed protein and later
a smaller form with signal sequence intact
Rough ER synthesizes what?
proteins- membrane proteins, secreted proteins, and many others
"N-linked" glycosylation refers to what organelle
Rough ER
Smooth ER- functions
lipid synthesis
site of detoxification of chemicals
archae cell size
1-5 micrometers
Golgi Apparatus- processes what?
synthesizes what?
sorts what?
Golgi Apparatus
processes (glycosylates) proteins synthesized on rough ER
synthesizes glycolipids (polysaccharides)
sorts proteins to destinations
Role of ER and Golgi in protein secretion:
ER- initial glycosylation of proteins
Golgi- completes glycosylation of proteins
lysosomes come from...
golgi vesicles
lysosomes perform what function
breakdown of major macromolecules- carbs, lipids, proteins to their subunits
How do lysosomes maintain acidity, and what enzymes benefit from this?
maintain acidity with proton pumps in lysosomal membrane
contain enzymes called acid hydrolases that are active at acidic pH
lysosome is the ______ ____ of the cell
recycle center
what are the two recycle centers of the cell
microbodies, also known as _______, degrade _______ and ________ and _________
aka peroxisomes
degrade fatty acids, unusual compounds and hydrogen peroxide
what do microbodies produce, and then degrade (using what enzyme), and why
hydrogen peroxide
degrade it using enzyme catalase
because it is highly toxic to cells
functions of peroxisomes (microbodies)(4)
1. degrade fatty acids
2. degrade unusual compounds
3. detoxify compounds such as methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde
4. produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide
what do plant cells have that animal cells dont?
extra large vacuoles and chloroplasts
endosymbiont theory... explain
bacteria was phagocytosed by eukaryote and was digested, and eventually became mitochondria (and cyanobacteria became chloroplasts)
T/F- the Smooth ER produces proteins
describe golgi apparatus
processing station w/ vesicles fusing to and budding off of it
functions of vacuoles
Vacuole Functions
1. store nutrients, water, ions, and waste materials
2. in plants specifically- maintain turgor pressure (to keep plant from wilting)
chloroplasts are found only in what two categories of organism?
plants and algae
photosynthesis also known as
carbohydrate synthesis
contain __ and ___
synthesize ___ and ____
T/F is a plastid
contain DNA and ribosomes
synthesize protein and lipids
is one of the plastids, True
Chloroplasts have 5 components
list them
outer membrane
intermembrane space
inner membrane
thylakoid membranes: grana
what is it
what is in it
does it have a membrane like other organelles
cytosol (viscous gel) with organelles
fat droplets
glycogen granules
free ribosomes
the cytoskeleton
*no membrane
Cytoskeletal composition
(tubules/filaments and diameter)
microtubules (tubulin)- 20 nm diam
intermediate filaments(various proteins)- 10 nm
microfilaments (actin) - 7nm
explain structural error of prions
prions are proteins that are incompletely folded- they aggregate and then cause disease
functions of membranes- 5
cell barrier and permeability regulator
transport processes
organization and localization of function
signal detection and transmission
adhesion and cell-cell communication
the fact that lipid soluble substances penetrate the membrane better than water soluble substances tells us that...
lipid is part of the cell membrane
phospholipids are composed of
a. fatty acyl chains esterified to positions 1 and 2 of glycerol
b. a phosphate ester and an amino alcohol such as choline, ethanolamine, or serine at the 3 position of glycerol
phospholipids are polar, nonpolar, or amphipathic?
amphipathic is most correct- have charged head group and uncharged nonpolar parts
self association of phospholipids into bilayer is due to
hydrophobic interactions
phospholipids form a _____, rather than a glob like __________s do, becase the polar head group can hydrogen bond with water and thus does not need to avoid water
triacylglycerols form a glob instead
function of sterols, and main sterol present in plant and animal membranes (2 different sterols)
cholesterol main sterol in animal membranes
phytosterol main sterol in plant membranes
function to stabilize and strengthen the membranes
What did the Langmuir isotherm help us to discover w/ respect to lipid structure?
1. amphipathic nature of lipids
2. used to determine that the membrane was a bilayer
fatty acid tails- # carbons?
avg length in nm?
12-20 carbons, avg 16-18
length 6-8 nm
Whats the difference b/t the inner and outer layers of the lipid bilayer
outer membrane is enriched with glycolipids
inner membrane PE, PS, PI
also differ in level of saturation of fatty acid tails
membrane asymmetry...
created during what?
by enzymes only on ___ _____ of the membrane
enzymes known as _______
created during biosynthesis
by modifying enzymes only on one site e.g. glycosylation
enzymes known as flippases
lipid mobility
types of mvmt?
move fast- small MW- 800 Da
rotation, lateral, and
some flip flop- though rare b/c hydrophobic/hydrophilic mix- requires flippases
florescence recovery after bleaching shows what?
the rate of diffusion of lipids into bleached area
Tm is what?
temperature where transition occurs between solid gel-like state and fluid state (like MP)
3 parameters that affect melting point
fatty acid length
saturated vs unsaturated
differential scanning calorimetry measures what?
lipid bilayer melting point
T/F cholesterol H- Bonds with phospholipid head groups?
hydroxyl hydrogen of cholesterol H-bonds with ester bond of phospholipid fatty acids, not head, and thus perturbs packing of lipids
-is _____ and thus makes membrane less flexible
-has ______ effect on packing tails thus making the membrane more flexible
-decreases/increases permeability of membrane
-is more rigid and thus makes membrane more flexible
-disrupts the packing tails thus making the membrane more flexible
-decreases permeability of membrane
cis and trans fatty acids are produced during ___ ________
partial hydrogenation
trans-fatty acids raise/lower melting point
natural unsaturated fatty acids are almost always cis or trans
the ability of an organism to modify its membrane viscosity is known as what?
and how does an organism accomplish this?
homeoviscous adaptation

occurs by changing carbon chain length, or changing saturation level of fatty acids
lipid rafts are also known as...
microdomains... explain structure
aka lipid rafts-
cholesterol and lipid (esp. glycosphingolipid) rich structures in the membrane, structure more rigid like an island in the membrane often enriched in signal transduction proteins
on a TLC plate, where membrane lipids are placed in a nonpolar solvent, which membrane molecules travel farthest?
the less polar travel farther
cholesterol travels farthest
human erythrocyte protein/lipid ratio
chloroplast thylakoid protein/lipid ratio
1.14 for erythrocyte
2.33 for thylakoid
peripheral proteins are
extrinsic, noncovalent association with outside of bilayer
integral proteins are intrinsic/extrinsic
intrinsic- pass through bilayer
lipid anchored proteins are
the lipid part of lipoprotein is anchored in bilayer
integral proteins- most common structure is alpha-helical/beta-sheet
alpha, betas are very rare
alpha helical transmembrane proteins consist of
20-30 amino acids and single or multiple helixes
hydropathy analysis can be used to predict _____
transmembrane sequences, approx 20 hydrophobic amino acids
the membrane of erythrocytes is composed of 52%______, 40% ______, and 8% _______ by weight

where are the carbohydrates found?
the membrane of erythrocytes is composed of 52%_proteins, 40% _lipids, and 8% _carbohydrates

the carbohydrates are found on the lipids and proteins
lipid weight _____ Da
protein weight avg ______ Da
lipid weight 800 Da
protein weight avg 40,000 Da
Why is the Beta Barrel membrane protein stable?
because the beta sheet has H-bonds between its own strands, which wrap into a barrel shape, leaving only hydrophobic sidechains on the outside
where are beta barrels found?
what organisms
outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, and some membrane acting toxins
ex. porins
why is the alpha helix membrane protein stable?
satisfies polypeptide backbone H-Bonding, and has hydrophobic sidechains that face outward into lipids
examples of helix bundle transmembrane proteins?
HGH receptor, insulin receptor, ATP binding cassette family, MDR proteins, 7TM receptors- G protein linked receptors
lipid anchored proteins
myristylation and palmytilation refer to proteins anchored where?
farnesylation and geranylation?
lipid anchored proteins
myristylation and palmytilation - anchored at plasma membrane covalent to fatty acids
farnesylation and geranylation- in cytosol
T/F all membrane proteins can move laterally within the lipid bilayer
False, only most
the cell fusion experiment demonstrated what?
membrane protein mobility
what are the three components of the cytoskeleton, and explain their structure/names
microfilaments- actin
intermediate filaments- composed of many types of proteins which are covalently linked to each other
asymmetry of membrane proteins-
oligosaccharides of glycoproteins on interior/exterior surface of plasma membrane
oligosaccharides of glycoproteins are on the exterior surface of the plasma membrane
How to determine sidedness of membrane proteins...
use lactoperoxidase- an enzyme that cannot penetrate the plasma membrane
solutes refers to
ions and small organic molecules
what passes through the membrane by simple diffusion?
gases- O2, CO2, small organic molecules
facilitated diffusion occurs for passage of what molecules? (3)
glucose, water, ions
via glucose transporter, aquaporin, and ion channels
glucose transport across membrane is simple/facilitated and involves what protein
facilitated (at least in this case) with GLUT1 protein
carrier proteins are involved in facilitated/active transport and are also known as __________, and two examples are _ and ___
facilitated and active
glucose transporter, and anion exchange protein
carrier proteins follow linear/michaelis menton kinetics, are specific for metabolite, and can either be uniport or coupled transport
follow enzyme- michaelis menton kinetics
porin and aquaporin are types of ____ proteins
glucose transporter is a uniport/coupled transport mechanism
anion exchange program is uniport/antiport/symport mechanism?
channel proteins including ion channels, porins and aquaporins are specific/nonspecific for metabolites they let pass through
specific, except for porins
porins are ______ proteins found on the outer ________ membrane, in addition to the membranes of _______ and ________ (2 organelles and one domain)

passes metabolites smaller than ______ Daltons
channel proteins
chloroplasts and bacteria

smaller than 5000 daltons
functions of active transport (3)
uptake nutrients, secrete waste, maintain non equilibrium ion concentrations
T/F uniport symport and antiport can all three be either diffusion(simple or facilitated) or active transport
P-Type ATPase
P stands for what
give example
phosphorylated intermediate
Na/K ATPase
V-Type ATPase
V stands for what, what does it do
where found
proton pump in organelles such as vacuoles lysosomes and Golgi complex
F-Type ATPase
what does F stand for... whats special about it
found in what
F for flexible- bi-directional can pump protons using ATP or leak protons making ATP
found in bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts
ABC Type ATPase
whats special about it
can transport a variety of solutes, not just cations like the other ATPases
what factors affect rate of diffusion across the bilayer?
which travel fastest
size, polarity, charge
small, nonpolar, uncharged molecules diffuse the fastest
Na/Glucose symporter, glucose transported up/down concentration gradient driven by Na ion (in same/different direction) up/down a Na concentration gradient
Na/Glucose symporter, glucose transported up concentration gradient driven by Na ion (in same direction) down a Na concentration gradient
halobacteria use _____ energy to pump protons, instead of ATP
for what factors are ion channels specific for a certain ion
size of channel and binding of ion
what type of active transport involves a phosphorylated intermediate?
direct active transport by P-type ATPases
Na/Glucose symporter, glucose transported up/down concentration gradient driven by Na ion (in same/different direction) up/down a Na concentration gradient
Na/Glucose symporter, glucose transported up concentration gradient driven by Na ion (in same direction) down a Na concentration gradient
halobacteria use _____ energy to pump protons, instead of ATP
for what factors are ion channels specific for a certain ion
size of channel and binding of ion
what type of active transport involves a phosphorylated intermediate?
direct active transport by P-type ATPases