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68 Cards in this Set

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What are protists?

A hodge-podge Taxonomic group in constant change

Do the protists represent a Monophyletic group or are they a Paraphyletic group?

Paraphyletic group

What does Paraphyletic mean?

A single ancestor and some (but not all) of its descendants

What are the three levels of the old Taxonomy protists?

Plant like Algae,

fungus-like slime molds,

the animal-like Protozoans

Are there any protists important to humans?

Yes, those that are disease causing and those that help in aiding digestion in animals

What are some defining characteristics of Prokaryotes?

Small, no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, first living things

What are some defining characteristics of Eukaryotes?

Bigger than Prokaryotes,

have membrane bound organelles,

true nucleus,

evolved from Prokaryotes

What are common characteristics of protists that are sort of plant like?

Algae, most have plastides, most are photosynthetic

What are some characteristics of protists that are animal-like?

Protozoans- mostly Heterotrophic but some can operate both ways.

What are some different categories of Protists that are fungal-like?

Slime molds, water molds, and cellular slime molds

Are Protist single celled or multicellular?

Most are single celled (but not all)

Are Protists filamentous or multicellular?

They can be both

What does Filamentous mean?

single cells that form long visible chains, threads, or filaments.

What does multicellular mean?

composed of several or many cells.

What does diploid mean?

having two similar complements of chromosomes.

What does haploid mean?

pertaining to a single set of chromosomes.

What is unique about a dinoflagellate?

It usually has two flagella, one in a groove around the body and the other extending from its center.

What category of protists contain autotrophic, heterotrophic, and organisms that can do both?


How many named species are included in the protist category in Taxonomy?

Over a hundred thousand (100,000)

How are organisms added to the protist category of taxonomy?

By exclusion

What did water-mold cause to happen in the 1870's in France?

Drowny mildew of grapes and lettuce

What industry was hurt by the drowny mildew of grapes and lettuce of the 1870's?

The French wine industry

What water mold caused the Irish potato famine?

Potato blight

When did the Irish Potato Famine take place?

In the 1840's

What are two different types of water-molds that cause problems for humans?

Cottony mildew on fish and sudden Oak death

Which protist group has most of its species with an external and an internal flagellum?


Which category of protists has a pellicle?


What is a pellicle?

a thin skin or membrane

What is Fuocoxanthan?

A yellowish photosynthetic pigment

What category of protist has two flagella(one wrapped around groove and one outside), is responsible for the nasty "red tides", and is Bioluminescent?


What is the internal flagella, in Euglenoids, used for?

Nobody knows

What do Euglenoids use their red eye spot for?

To orient them to light

What fraction of the euglenoid species are photosynthetic and can switch from autotrophic to heterotrophic?

About 1/3 of their species

Very few Euglenoids are what?


What does a Euglenoid look like?

Elongated cells, two flagella, pellicle of protein strips, and have a red-eye spot

What habitat do most, but not all, euglenoids inhabit?

Fresh water

Half of the dinoflagellates are photosynthetic, what makes up the other half?

Predators and parasites

Why is the red tide bad?

Are blooms which can release Toxinscaneome and can make people get sick or die from eating fish or shellfish during a red tide

What are some symbiotic relationships photosynthetic dinoflagellate can have?

Living in corals, jellyfish, sea anemone, and giant clams

What do dinoflagellates gain by forming symbiotic relationships with hosts?

Food and protection from predators

Dinoflagellates are also called what?

Whirling cells

What are two different types of golden algae and Kin?

Diatoms and Brown Algae

Where are the four characteristics of golden algae?

Most are unicellular (but not all), two flagella, can be autotrophic and/or Heterotrophic, most are marine sometimes bloom to cause fish kills, and are typically covered with Fuocoxanthan in addition to chlorophyll A and C

Most golden algae is unicellular, what about the rest?

The rest of the golden alage is either filaments or colonials

Diatoms are particularly unique because of what substance their cell walls are made of?

Silica (glass)

What are some uses for Diatom carcasses?

Toothpaste and natural insecticide

What are some common characteristics that are found in the Protist category golden algae?

Contains the largest and most complex protist , kelps, Has a two-part Silica cell wall, Fuocoxanthan, mined from deep ancient Marine deposits of silica, and contains the genus Sargassum

What are some defining characteristics of the red algae category of protists?

They can live in the deepest water of all photosynthesizers, and provides us with agar, carrageenan, and Nori wrappers (for sushi)

What are some defining characteristics of the green algae category of protists?

Shows the most similarities to plants, Alteration of Generations life cycle, lives in symbiotic relationship with fungi, ranges in size from one micrometer to over one meter,abd has a genus, Chlorella.

What is green algae most likely to have given rise to?

Probably gave rise to land plants

What is being considered as both food and an oxygen producer for future space trips?

Genus, Chlorella

What biological group lost slime molds and water molds to the protists when the DNA Nazis showed their genetic closeness to protist?

Fungus group

Why don't more people have "plasmodial slime molds" as pets?

They can cause diseases

What usually makes up the cell walls of fungi?

Contain chitin, glucans and protein

What do we call photosynthetic protists that live in water?


What are the main groups of algae?

Euglenoids, dinoflagellates, golden algae, diatoms, brown algae, red algae, and green algae

What is present water molds cell walls that is not present in fungi cell walls?


What three ways do protozoans get from one place to another?

by cell extension, flagella, and cilia

Where does Trichonympha live?

in the intestines of many, if not most, termite species.

How does the symbiotic relationship, between Trichomonas and a termite intestinal tract, help the termite?

The Trichomonas helps digest the wood

If you drink at a lake or a stream you can get hikers diarrhea or Camper's cramps?

You can get campers cramps by accidentally swallowing a protozoan cysts in the water

What protozoan causes someone to transmit or get vaginitis?

Trichomonas Vaginalis

What is another name for camper's crampers?


If you can track African sleeping sickness from Tsetse fly or get Chaga's disease from a kissing bug, what protozoan group can you think?


Which protozoan can produce pseudopodia and often live in beautiful shells?


What does the Macronuceleus in a paramecium do?

Protein synthesis and metabolism

What does the micronucleus in paramecium do?

Is used to donate DNA to partner in sex

What is apicomplexans?

Causes water borne diseases, Cat Scratch Fever, and malaria