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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Label

Label

  1. pharynx
  2. oral cavity
  3. tongue
  4. salivary glands
  5. esophagus
  6. diaphragm
  7. liver
  8. stomach
  9. gallbladder
  10. pancreas
  11. common bile duct
  12. pancreatic duct
  13. duodenum
  14. transverse colon
  15. small intestine
  16. ascenden. colon
  17. descending colon
  18. cecum
  19. appendix
  20. sigmoid colon
  21. rectum
  22. anal canal
  23. anus

uvula

  • small mass of tissue at the back of mouth
  • important for creation of sounds
  • closes off the openings to the nasal cavity

pharynx

  • located at the back of the mouth
  • 2 openings - trachea and esophagus (digestive tube, connects pharynx to the stomach)

salivary glands

produce saliva to chemically digest feed

soft palate

functions in closing off the openings to the ears and nose

Why don't you swallow food into your lungs

it is prevented from entering the trachea the epiglottis

epi-

above

-glottis

refers to the opening to the esophagus

esophagus

  • food tube
  • lies behind windpipe
  • rings of smooth muscle in wall

peristalsis

rhythmic contraction of muscles

esophagus ends ...

where it joins the stomach

Cardiac sphicter

  • muscle that can close off the opening to the stomach
  • controls material going in the stomach and out of the stomach

gastric juice

  • stomach acid
  • mixes with the churned food in stomach
  • kills most of the bacteria in food
  • stimulates hunger

stomach

  • can secret 2 to 3 ltr. of gastric fluid per day
  • secretion and stomach's mechanical churning acts to further soften and break food into smaller pieces.
  • 3 layers of muscle in the wall contract and relax

Chyme

term used for food after the stomach digestes it

Hydrochloric

important gastric secretion

pepsin

  • enzyme produced in stomach
  • acts chemically on protein to digest it

what is partially absorbed from the stomach into the bloodstream

water, alcohol, some medications

how is the stomach protected

inner lining of the stomach is protected by a layer of mucous produced by the stomach itself

chyme moves from the stomach into

first section of the small intestine

pyloric sphincter

between stomach and the small intestine

How long does food typically spend in the stomach

2 to 4 hours

small intestine

  • between stomach and large intestine
  • highly folded and tweisted
  • 5 - 6 m long
  • main part of digestion

small intestine can be divided into three sections

  • duodenum
  • jejunum
  • ileum

digestion in small intestine

  • primarily chemical
  • mostly in duodenum

where does the enzymes that act chemically on food in the small intestine comes from ...

  • small intestine itself
  • pancreas

pencreatic duct

  • connects the pancreas with the small intestine
  • carries enzymes needed for digestion

how long does the digestion of food in the small intestine takes

3 to 10 hours

emulsified

  • large lipid molecules are physically broken down by bile resulting in droplets of lipids.
  • physical process

Bile

  • product of the liver
  • stored in gall bladder
  • acts to emulsify fats

bile duct

carries bile into small intestine

how does aborption in the small intestine occur

by many tiny finger-like projections that line the walls

villi

tiny finger-like projection that line the walls of the small intestine

the inner surface of the small intestine is full of ...

  • tiny blood vessels and
  • capillaries

what molecules are absorbed i from the capillaries in the small intestine

  • carbohydrates
  • proteins
  • lipids


where does the food goes after its digested in the small intestine

large intestine or colon

large intestine

  • 1.5 m long
  • creates an upside-down U-shape
  • surround the small intestine

what are the 3 portions of the large intestine

  • ascending colon
  • transverse colon
  • descending colon

duties of large intestine

  • reabsorption of water and essential minerals into bloodstream
  • Vitamin K, folic acid and Vitamin B12

appendix

  • small pouch located at the point where the small intestine meets the large intestine
  • no function in humans

rectum

  • end of large intestine
  • acts to store fece

anus

opening of the rectum to the outside of the body

define peristalsis and how it functions

involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.

what are two types of digestion?

chemical and mechanical.

Where does mechanical digestion occurs

mouth - chewed


stomach - churned and mix


small intestine - large lipid molecules are broken down by bile

Where does chemical digestion occurs

mouth - saliva acts on food as chewed


stomach - gastric juices act on food


small intestine - intestinal and pancreatic juices complete chemical digestion

Where are food materials absorbed into the circulatory system?

in the small intestine


how is the pancreas involved in the digestion of food in the alimentary canal?

produces and sends digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct to the small intestine where they chemically digest food.

3 important functions of the large intestine

  1. Water and essential minterals are reabsorbed into bloodstream
  2. beneficial bacteria produce some important nutrients and reabsorbs them
  3. storage organ for the feces

digestive enzymes in the mouth


(Type of Enzyme - digestive secretion - Action)

Amylase - Saliva - begins digestion of starch to maltose

digestive enzymes in the stomach


(Type of Enzyme - digestive secretion - Action)


Protease - Gastric Juice - Begins digestion of proteins

digestive enzymes in the small intestine


(Type of Enzyme - digestive secretion - Action)

Pancreatic Juice


Amylase - Completes digestion of starch to maltose


Protease - Continues digestion of proteins


Lipase - Completes digestion of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol



Intestinal Juice


Protease - Completes digestion of proteins to amino acids


Carbohydrase - Completes digestion of carbohydrates to simple sugars

What is an enzyme

biological catalyst (speed up chemical reactions without themselves being altered in the process.

5 factors that affect enzyme action

  1. pH: acidic in stomach, neutralized in small intestine
  2. Surface Area:
  3. Coenzymes: made from various vitamins
  4. Inhibitors: bindes the enzyme
  5. Temperature:

function of the liver

homeostatic function: filters harmful substances out of the blood and converts them to less toxic molecules. (i.e. alcohol)

what are the cells in the liver called and what they are sensitive to

chemoreceptors - monitor the level of a chemical


sensitive to glucose level

function of the pancreas

producing insulin if blood glucose level in blood rises


producing glucagon if glucose level in blood drop.