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54 Cards in this Set

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Epidermal Cells

3 Types of Cells that Sponges have

1. Monophyletic

2. Sequential

3. Filter/Suspension

4. Osculum

5. Spongocoel

6. Mesohyl

7. Amoebocyte

8. Choanocytes

Sponges are considered 1.(mono/para/poly) phyletic, and are ___2___ hermaphrodites. They are sedentary animals that ___3___ feed. Their main opening is called the __4__, its central cavity the ___5___. Its gelatinous matrix called the ___6___ have ___7___ cells that use pseudopodia to move. Flagellated ___8____ or "collar cells" in the innermost layer engulf bacteria and particles by phagocytosis.

1. Metazoa

2. Eumetazoa

3. Bilaterians

4. Deuterostome

5. Lophotrochozoa

6. Ecdysozoa

7. Porifera

8. Ctenophora

9. Cnidaria

10. Echinodermata

11. Chordata

12. Platyhelminthe

13. Rotifera

14. Mollusca

15. Annelida

16. Nematoda

17. Arthropoda

Diploblast 2

Triploblast, Coelom 3

At what point on the tree would diploblast occur? Triploblast? Coelom?

At what point on the tree would diploblast occur? Triploblast? Coelom?

1. Nematocysts

2. Cnidocytes

3. Gastrovascular

4. Both sexually and asexually

Cnidaria have unique stinging structures/organelles ___1___ housed in specialized cells ___2___ unique to their phyla. They have a sac body plan with a ___3___ cavity which is basically a one-opening digestive compartment. They reproduce 4. (sexually/asexually/both sexually and asexually).

Hydrozoa (Alternate)

Scyphozoa (Medusozoan)

Cubozoa (Medusozoan)

Anthozoa (Anthozoan)

4 Classes of Cnidaria/ Which are medusozoans? Anthozoans?


- Phylum that make up much of the ocean's plankton species

- Eight "combs" of cilia that propel the animals through water

- Specialized cells filled with sticky threads


- Cylindrical forms of cnidaria that adhere to the substrate by the aboral end (opposite of mouth) of their body and extend tentacles

Ex: Hydras, sea anemones


- Flattened, mouth-down version of the polyp

- Moves freely in the water


Capsule like organelles within cnidocytes that are capable of exploding outward

Ex: Nematocyst

-"True Jellies"


-"Box jellies"

- Have complex eye, highly toxic cnidocyte


- Sea anemones and corals

- Occur only as polyps

- Often form symbioses with algae

- Secrete hard exoskeleton of calcium carbonate


- Major clade whose members exhibit triplobastic development

- 2 Opening Digestive System "Tube" Body Plan

- Coelom




3 Major Clades of Bilaterians





4 Phyla studied in the clade Lophotrochozoan


- Only phyla in bilateria without "tube" body plan or coelom, still triploblastic

- Free-living or parasitic

- Lack circulatory system

- Have central nervous system that processes information from sensory structures

- Respire through diffusion and protonephridia


- Networks of tubules with ciliated structures called flame bulbs that pull fluid through branched ducts opening to the outside

- Part of an excretory apparatus that functions mainly to maintain osmotic balance



2 Clades of Platyhelminthes


- Prey on small animals or dead

- Move by cilia on ventral surface, glide on mucus

- Light-sensitive eye spots and lateral flaps to detect chemicals

- Hermaphrodite, cross fertilize, or reproduce asexually

Trematodes (Flukes)

- Many require an intermediate host for larvae to develop, than a final host where matured ones live

Ex: Schistosoma "Blood" Larva from snail to human

Cestode (Tapeworm)

- Body surface absorbs nutrients released by digestion in the host's intestine

- Lack individual digestive system, mouth or gastrovascular cavity

- Anterior end has scolex with suckers to hook onto intestinal lining of host

- Long ribbon of units called proglottids: sacs of sex organs




3 Groups of Rhabditophorans


- Microscopic animals with specialized organ systems such as an Alimentary canal (digestive tube with 2 openings)

- Pseudocoelomate

- Crown of cilia "wheel bearer" draws water into mouth, jaws called trophi grind up food

- Asexual reproduction called parthenogenesis, capable of sexual reproduction


- 3 Part Body: Foot for movement; Visceral mass to contain internal organs; Mantle: Fold of tissue that drapes over visceral mass and secretes a shell

- Feed by a straplike organ called radula to scrape up food

- Open circulatory system of hemolymph

- Most have shell made up of calcium carbonate protecting soft body

- Usually separate sexed, can be hermaphrodites





4 Clades of Mollusca Studied


- Oval-shaped unsegmented body

- 8 Dorsal Plate shell

- Clade of mollusca


- 3/4 of all molluscs, biggest group

- Marine, freshwater and terrestrial

- Single, spiraled shell secreted by glands at the edge of the mantle

- Developed eyes at tips of tentacles


- Clade of Molluscs that are all aquatic

- Hinged shells with powerful adductor muscles

- No distinct head, radula lost, some have eyes and sensory tentacles along outer edge of mantle

- Gills for respiration; suspension feeders through siphons

- Typically sedentary


- Active marine predators that use tentacles to grab prey, bite with beak-like jaws and immobilize with poisonous saliva

- Only mollusc clade with closed circulatory system

- Well-developed sense organs and complex brain


- Phyla of segmented worms that can live in marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitat

- Coelomates

- 2 Major clades: Errantia and Sedentaria


- Mainly marine clade, can be mobile or immobile

- Predatory or grazer

- Parapodia on each body segment that act in locomotion, each have numerous chaetae

- Vascularized and can function as gills

- Well-developed jaws or sensory organs


- Less mobile clade

- Tube-dwelling ones have elaborate gills or tentacles for filter feeding

Ex: Leeches, Earthworms


- Hermaphrodites that do not cross-fertilize, but physically align themselves to exchange sperm; can also reproduce asexually

- Closed circulatory system

- Nervous system

- Within sedentarian clade of annelid


- Animals that shed a tough external coat (cuticle) as they grow



2 Major Phyla of Ecdysozoa


- Among the most ubiquitous; play important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling

- Alimentary canal

- Lack circulatory system

- Pseudocoelomate

- Rotifera (Lophotrochozoan)

- Nematoda (Ecdysozoan)

2 Pseudocoelomate Phyla, and Clade


- Segmented body covered by cuticle, hard chitin exoskeleton, jointed appendages that have become modified for walking, feeding, sensory reception, reproduction and defense

- Well developed sensory organs such as eyes, olfactory, and antennae

- Open circulatory system

- Various gas exchange organs (gills, tracheal systems)

Chelicerates (Spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpion)

Myriapods (Centipede, millipede)

Pancrustaceans (Insect, lobster, shrimp)

3 Major Lineages of the Arthropoda


- Lineage named for clawlike feeding appendages, serve as pincers or fangs

- Anterior cephalothorax, posterior abdomen

- Lack antennae, simple eyes

- Mainly comprised of arachnid group


- Six pairs of appendages: chelicerae; pedipalps for sensing, feeding, defense or reproduction; 4 pairs of walking legs

- Gas exchange: Book lungs, stacked platelike structures



- Terrestrial clade

- Head: Antennae pair, 3 pairs of appendages modified as mouthparts, including jaw-like mandible

- Some eat decaying leaves/plant matter, some are carnivores


- Thrive in marine, freshwater and terrestrial

- Highly specialized appendages

- Only group with 2 pairs of antennae

- 3+ pairs modified mouthparts includng mandibles; walking legs on thorax; appendages on abdomen

- Gas exchange through cuticle or gills

- Sexes are separate in most


- 3 Pairs of Appendages, complex organ systems

- Wings developed from cuticle (not appendages) helped them disperse to new habitats more effectively; 1-2 pairs from dorsal side of thorax

- Undergo either incomplete (nymphs) or complete (larval) metamorphosis into adults

- Sexual reproduction, separate sexes



2 Phyla of Deuterostomes


- Slow-moving or sessile marine animals

- Epidermis covers endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates; prickly from skeletal bumps and spines

- Unique water vascular system, hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion and feeding

- Separate sexed sexual reproduction by gamete release

- May appear radial but larvae have bilateral symmetry; 5 part body organization as adults

Asteroidea: Sea stars and sea daisies

- Arms radiating from central disk; tube feet on undersurfaces that secrete adhesive chemicals

- Used for locomotion or predation

- Can evert its stomach inside out through its mouth and into prey's shell

- Regeneration from central disk

- Small armless group absorbs nutrients through body membrane

Ophiuroidea: Brittle stars

- Distinct central disk; long, flexible arms

- Locomotion: Lash arms in serpentine movements

- Secrete adhesive chemicals from tube feet

- Some are suspension feeders, predators or scavengers

Echinoidea: Sea urchins and sand dollars

- Armless group of Echinoderms; five rows of tube feet that function in slow movement

- Muscles that pivot long spines; aid in locomotion and protection

- Mouth on underside is ringed by highly-complex, jaw-like structures well adapted to eating seaweed

Crinoidea: Sea lilies and feather stars

- Can live attached to substrate by stalk; others crawl using long, flexible arms

- Both use arms in suspension feeding

Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers

- Morphological dissimilar to echinoderms; lack spines; reduced endoskeleton; elongated in their oral-aboral axis

- Five rows of tube feet, some around the mouth are developed as feeding tentacles

Asteroidea: Sea stars, sea daisies

Ophiuroidea: Brittle stars

Echinoidea: Sea urchins, sand dollars

Crinoidea: Sea lilies, feather stars

Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers

5 Clades of Echinoderms and examples


- Consists of 2 basal groups of invertebrates (lancelets, tunicates) and vertebrates (have backbone)

- Bilateral, coelomate with notochord, segmented bodies

- Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

- Pharyngeal slits

- Post-anal tail