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31 Cards in this Set

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basic unit of life

Robert Hooke

created cell biology by observing nonliving cork

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

first person to observe organisms; discovered bacteria

contributed that cells are basic unit of structure/function to cell theory

cell theory

1. all living things are made up of cells

2. cell are basic unit of structure/function in living things

3. new cells come from existing cells

Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann

observed animal cells and concluded all living things made up of cells; Schleiden discovered all things made up of cells

Schwann discovered that all animals are made up of cells

Lorenz Oken and Rudolf Virchow

contributed to cell theory that all cells arise from existing cells

two types of microscopes

light and electron

light microscope

passes visible light through specimen to observe it; specimen can be alive; magnifies 1000-2000 times

electron microscope

uses beam of electrons through specimen to observe; specimen must be dead; magnifies up to 500,000 times size of the specimen; specimen must be kept in vacuum sealed with no oxygen

Scanning Electron Microscope

examines surface of cell in detail

Transmission Electron Microscope

examines interior of cell in detail

prokaryotic cells

cells that do not enclose DNA in nuclei (do not have a nucleus and DNA is contained instead in nucleoid region); generally smaller and simpler; do not have membrane-bound organelles; found in bacteria

eukaryotic cells

cells that enclose DNA in a nucleus (have a nucleus); more large and complex; make up plants, animals, and fungi


large membrane-enclosed structure that contains genetic material in form of DNA and controls many of the cell´s activities


information stored inside nucleus that contains coded instructions for making proteins and other molecules for the cell

- found in all types of cells


small sphere found inside of nucleus; function- to make ribosomes


store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

- found in eukaryotic cells (plant and animal)

-plant cells have single, large vacuole filled with liquid (allows cell to be firm and hold up heavy parts like leaves and flowers)


function: store and move materials between cell organelles, as well as to and from the cell surface

-smaller than vacuoles, and membrane enclosed

- found in most eukaryotic cells


small organelles filled with enzymes

-function: break down lipids, carbs, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by rest of the cell

-also break down organelles that have outlived usefulness

-removing junk that might otherwise clutter the cell

-structure: surrounded by membrane made of lipids

-found in eukaryotic cells, mostly animal but some plants


network of protein filaments in eukaryotic cells that give cells shape and internal organization

-involved in movement; help transport materials between different parts of cell

-found in both plant and animal cells

-made up of microtubules and microfilaments


minute cylindrical organelle

-function: involved in making spindle fibers for cell division


makes proteins that repair damage in cells and help direct chemical processes in the cell

-found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are all types; all cells need protein

-floating freely: makes protein for cell itself; attached to the rough ER: makes protein for outside the cell wall

endoplasmic reticulum

-place where lipid component of cell membrane is assembled

-make proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell

1. rough ER- has ribosomes attached to it that make protein for export

2. smooth ER- does not have ribosomes attached; helps to detoxify drugs

Golgi apparatus

modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from rough ER for storage in the cell or outside the cell

-builds lysosomes

-found in all eukaryotic cells


converts light energy from the sun into food/sugars in process called photosynthesis

- found in plant cells

cell wall

-provides structure, support, and protection for plant cells

-allows water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other materials to pass through the cell

cell membrane

separates interior of cells from outside environment and regulates materials that can come in and out of the cell

-made of four kinds of molecules: phospholipids, cholesterol, protein and carbs

-found in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes

structure of cell membrane

made up of lipid bilayer

-made up of two parts; head and fatty acid tail

-hydrophilic heads exposed outside the cell

- hydrophobic tails not exposed to water or outside of cell

selectively permeable

-quality of the cell membrane that allows some materials to enter cell and other not to

-smaller, nonpolar molecules allowed to enter

-larger, polar molecules restricted from cell


small tail on outside of cells that allow movement of cell or move objects outside the cell


tiny hair-like projections on outside of cell that move cell/move objects outside the cell