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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by
substrate-level phosphorylation
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA
A glucose molecule is broken down to CO2 and H2O in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yields 2 ATP. What happened to most of the energy a cell obtains from oxidation of glucose?
It is stored in NADH and FADH2
Carbon dioxide () is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
food → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
how many moles of are released in the citric acid cycle from one glucose
input and output of glycosis
Input: NAD+, 2ADP, and glucose
Output: NADH, 2 ATP, and Pyruvate
Formation of Acetyl Co A
2 pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 CoA ----> 2 acetyl CoA + 2 NADH + 2 carbon dioxide
Input/output of Citric Acidc Cycle (krebs)
Input: ADP, Acetyl Co A, NAD+,
Output: ATP, CO2, Coenzyme A, NADH
Glycosis takes place in:
cytosol or cytoplasm of the cell
Aceytl CoA formation takes place in:
the mitochrondrial matrix
The krebs cycle takes place in:
the mitochrondrial matrix
oxidative phosphorylation takes place in:
the inner mitochrondiral membrane
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
oxidative phosphorylation
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
Oxygen to form water
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?
chemiosmotic synthesis
The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to proton transport across the same membrane.
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
In cellular respiration, the energy for most ATP synthesis is supplied by
a proton gradient across a membrane.
Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?
citric acid cycle → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ into which location in eukaryotic cells?
mitochondrial intermembrane space
oxidative phosphorylation Input/output
net input - ADP, O2, NAD+
net output - ATP,NADH, H2O
best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?
transforming the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
substrate-level phosphorylation
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
+ 6 6 + 6 + Energy
C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen () is present or absent?
reactants and products anaerobic reduction of pyruvate during lactic acid fermentation also in muscle cells
Reactants: Pyruvate and NADH
products: Lactate and NAD+
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
pyruvate is reduced
NADH is oxidized
In the absence of oxygen, what is the net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis?
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
substrate-level phosphorylation
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
The process of cellular respiration, which converts simple sugars such as glucose into CO2 and water, is an example of _____.
catabolic pathway
Cellular respiration is ____
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
anabolic pathways
They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
Which reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings?
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
entropy of the universe
what reaction will decrease the entropy within a cell
anabolic reactions
metabolism in its entirety in all organisms is
all the energy transformation reactions in an organism
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
an RNA nucleotide
when is the enzyme saturated with substrate?
near the end
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme
Competiive Inhibition
A substance competes for the active site on a enzyme.
has a structure so similar to the substrate that it can bond to the enyzme
allosteric inhibition
the inhibitor is competing for an alternative site one way to control a metabolic pathway (feedback control (inhibition)) a type of noncompetitive inhibition
Feedback control
refers to biological pathways in which the end product inhibits an enzyme early in the pathway
non competitive inhibitor
binds to a site on the enzyme that is not the active site.
irreversible inhibitor
forms a covalent bond with an amino acid side group with in the active site which then prevents catalytic acitivity by blocking substrate
Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses
in or near the active site
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled
change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction?
by changing the shape of the enzyme's active site
The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described
feedback inhibition.
Besides turning enzymes on or off, what other means does a cell use to control enzymatic activity?
localization of enzymes into specific organelles or membranes
Phosphofructokinase is a control enzyme in regulation of cellular respiration. describes phosphofructokinase activity
allosteric enzyme - activity decreases when levels of ATP and citrate are high
pathway slows down when ATP demand is low - increases when demand is high
example of feedback regulation
According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate
from engulfed, originally free-living heterotrophic bacteria
What is the function of the nucleus?
It houses DNA.
What is the function of the cell membrane?
take in and release materials
What is most important to transport within a cell?
microtubules and intracellular membranes
When do cells take on their unique characteristics?
during embryonic development
what would tell you if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic
whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell–the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria.
What types of proteins are not synthesized in the rough ER
mitochondrial proteins
Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine would be unable to
separate chromosomes during cell division
If an individual has abnormal microtubules, due to a hereditary condition, in which organs or tissues would you expect dysfunction and why
sperm, larynx, and trachea: cells and tissues that contain flagella or cilia
Mitochondria are found in _____.
plant and animal cells
What are common traits of chloroplasts and mitochondria
Both have their own DNA (remember they got encompassed by another cell at some point)
Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in
Organelles in heavier fractions could produce ATP with light, organelles inlighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions contain,
heavier: chloroplasts
Lighter: Mitochrondria
identify the path a secretory protein follows from synthesis to secretion
ER-->Cis Golgi cisternae--> medial ' '--> Trans ' '--> Plasma Membrane
smooth ER functions
lipid synthesis, poision liver detoxification, calcium ion storage
Golgi Apparatus functions
protein sorting and modification, cisternal maturation
Rought ER functions
protein synthesis
lysosomes function
macromolecule digestion, and hydrolysis of macromolecules, such as in phagocytosis and autophagy
all protists are ____
According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?
from engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria
A sign on the beach states, "Beach Closed. Red Tide." The organisms interfering with your use of this beach are probably _____.
What is true about dinoflagellates is true?
They possess two flagella.
Why is the filamentous morphology of the water molds considered a case of convergent evolution?
In both cases, filamentous shape is an adaptation for the absorptive nutritional mode of a decomposer
an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light which algae group?
red algae
relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is neutral
Which of the following are two groups that are adapted to anaerobic conditions and contain modified mitochondria that lack DNA?
diplomonads and parabasalids
Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer?
Which of these protist structures should provide the most likely avenue for an artificial drug-delivery "cell" that can penetrate animal cells?
apical complex
Green algae differ from land plants in that many green algae
are unicellular.
The best evidence for not classifying the slime molds as fungi comes from slime molds'
DNA sequences.
_____ are eukaryotic autotrophs that float near the surface of water and are the basis of the food chain.
Coral bleaching actually refers to the death of symbiotic dinoflagellates living within the corals. Why does coral bleaching cause the corals to die?
Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live
What is true about obligate anaerobes
They are poisoned by O2.
Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from those present in eukaryotic cytosol. Because of this, which of the following is correct
Some antibiotics can block protein synthesis in bacteria without effects in the eukaryotic host
genomes of prokaryotes
Prokaryotic genomes are composed of circular DNA.
Prokaryotes' essential genetic information is located in the
the genes for sex pilus construction and for tetracycline resistance are located together on the same plasmid within a particular bacterium. If this bacterium readily performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid the result:
the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance to other bacteria in that habitat.
Genetic material can also be moved between bacteria but requires that two living prokaryotic cells physically join with one another.
How does the large amount of genetic variation observed in prokaryotes arise?
have extremely short generation times and large populations.
& can exchange DNA with many types of prokaryotes by way of conjugation
If the mature protein is destined to leave the cell in which it is produced, the
polypeptide would be synthesized
by a ribosome bound to the endoplasmic reticulum.
An organism that obtains its energy from the sun and uses carbon dioxide as a source of carbon is:
An exergonic reaction would always be
A spontaneous reaction is a reaction that
A chemoautotrophic organism would obtain
energy from inorganic molecules and carbon from carbon dioxide.
Which one of the following reactions has a positive delta G?
The reduction of carbon dioxide.