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232 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classical endo organs
Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, gonads, placenta, pineal
(make up the)
Non-classical endo organs (7)
Brain, adipose, skin, heart, GI tract, liver, kidneys
3 features of a hormone
produced by organ in small amounts,
released into blood stream,
transported to a distant organ to exert some action
Tropic hormones
affect other endo organs
nontropic hormones
non-endo organs
(are affected by this type of hormone)
Classes of hormones (5)
amines, polypeptides, proteins, steroids, arachidonic acid derivatives.
thyroid hormones
(are this class of hormones)
(include this classical endo organ's hormones)
Classification of TRH
polypeptide (3 aas)
Classification of TSH
Classification of prostaglandins
Arachidonic acid derivatives
has an amino terminus sequence that needs trimmed for activation.
has an internal cleavage site that must be cut to generate two active molecules.
released with a frequency of about 1 hour.
released at intervals longer than 1 hour but less than 24 hours.
released at an interval of about 24 hours.
Quotidian (diurnal)
release generally occurs each day.
release occurs approximately every 30 days.
Circannual (seasonal)
release takes place on a yearly basis.
Inhibitory control
When one hormone must be suppressed to allow another to act.
Have unknown ligands
Orphan nuclear receptors.
Kinases that turn on NRs (5)
Activator of nongenomic estrogen-like signaling.
Selectively active estrogen response factors.
enzyme-linked imunosorbent assay.
Frog skin bioassay
(tests upregulation of this hormone)
(upregulation can be tested via this assay)
Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay tests binding of a molecule to which receptor?
Who is Yalow?
Got NP in 1977 for competition assay.
What are the two radiolabels often used to tag stuff?
125I and 3H
Membrane crossing hormones
(the classes)
Steroids, Thyroids
(can interact with cells by)
Volume of plasma cleared of hormone per unit time:
Metabolic clearance rate:
Metabolic control:
When a prohormone is metabolized to become active:
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Nuclei that connect with
the posterior pituitary
supraoptic nucleus (SON) and
paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
Supraoptic nucleus
Paraventricular nucleus
Pituitary gland
Pars distalis
Anterior lobe of the adenohypophysis.
Posterior pituitary, neural component.
Anterior pituitary, glandular component.
pituitary gland
(is made up of two parts, what are their complex names)
Adenohypophysis and
(are two parts of the)
Pars intermedia
Intermediate lobe of the adenohypophysis
Pars nervosa
Posterior lobe of the neurohypophysis
Oral ectoderm
Roof of primitive mouth
Base of developing diencephalon.
Part of the pituitary derived from nervous tissue
Posterior pituitary.
Hormones released by posterior pituitary
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
Where posterior pit hormones are made
Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus
Name for transport of oxytocin and vasopressin between hypothalamus and pituitary
Axonal transport
Where oxytocin and vasopressin are released into general circulation
Terminal buttons, found in the posterior pituitary
Part of the pituitary affected by hypothalamic-releasing and hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones
Anterior pituitary
Portal system of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary carry which hormones?
All the releasing and inhibiting hormones.
Gonadotropin RH
(causes the release of)
FSH and LH target
Ovaries and testes
FSH and LH target the ovaries and testes and result in their production of
Androgens and estrogen
Corticotropin RH causes the release of
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
ACTH targets
Adrenal gland
ACTH targets the adrenal gland and results in production of
Thyrotropin RH causes the release of
TSH, prolactin
TSH and prolactin target the
Thyroid gland
TSH and prolactin
(target the thyroid to cause production of)
(is generated by the thyroid under stimulation of these two hormones)
GRH and GIH control the release of
Growth hormone
Growth hormone targets
Cells throughout the body
Prolactin RH causes the release of prolactin which targets the
Bones, breasts, thyroid, and cells of the body
This integrates the activities of the endocrine and nervous systems and is the core of the endocrine system
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis
Glial elements of the posterior pituitary
An endocrine organ considered to be an extension of the hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary gland
Composition of the posterior pituitary gland
Pituicytes, unmyelinated nerve fibers, and the axon terminals of neurons that originated in the supraoptic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei
Arginine vasopressin
Antidiuretic hormone
Another name for arginine vasopressin (AVP)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary
Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin
Kind of bond that forms loops in OT and ADH
Cysteine bonds
Number of peptides in OT and ADH
Half-life of OT and ADH in blood
< 5 minutes
Organs that remove OT and ADH from blood
Liver, kidney, brain
State of travel of OT and ADH in blood
Oxytocin, targeting the mammary gland, causes
Milk ejection
Oxytocin targets what during pregnancy to what effect?
The smooth muscle of the uterus to increase contraction
This hormone may help establish maternal behavior
This hormone is generated by males and is present at ejaculation
Stress may inhibit the release of this hormone
Physical stimulation can help generate production of this hormone
Suckling can inhibit release of this hormone
The precursor to the hormone that targets the mammary glands and uterus, and where it is processed
Prepro-oxyphysin, processed on it's traverse to the posterior pituitary
Two products of prepro-oxyphysin processing
OT, Neurophysin I
Neurophysin I
(origin, location, and function)
Comes from oxytocin precursor; stored in secretory vesicles with oxytocin and released with oxytocin, biological action is unclear
(what hormone is this)
Oxytocin's mechanism of action
Recognized by a G-protein coupled membrane receptor,
activates IP3/Ca2+ pathways,
calcium rises,
kinases are activated,
myosin / actin contraction stimulated.
Affect of ADH on kidneys (general)
Water retention
Affect of '''excess ADH'''
Arteriole restriction, increased arteriole blood pressure
Regulatory mechanism of ADH
Plasma osmolality
Location of osmoreceptors
Clinical result of lacking ADH
Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus
Clinical result of lacking ADH response
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Definition of insipid
Boring, uneffective
Indicator of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Increased urine output
Precursor of arginine vasopressin
Products of processing prepro-pressophysin
AVP, neurophysin II, and a glycoprotein (maybe?)
AVP's mechanims of action
Binds to receptors in renal tubules,
increased solute uptake in ascending loop of Henle,
increased water permeability in distal convoluted tubule,
increased water permeability in collecting duct.
Ultimately, urine production decreases.
The three AVP receptors
VR1, VR2, VR3
ADH receptors are what type of membrane receptors
G-protein coupled
VR1 and VR2 (ADH receptors) use this secondary messenger
VR1 is a receptor for which hormone and uses what type of molecular mechanismr?
ADH, IP3 / Ca++ pathway activation
Affects of VR receptors and ADH stimulation
VD1: vasoconstriction
VD2: aquaporin insertion in membrane, permeability rises, urine flow decreases
VD3: stimulation of adrenocorticotropin release
ADH receptor found in the kidney
ADH receptor found in the anterior pituitary
ADH receptor found in all tissues except the kidney
Actions of ADH other than antidiuresis
Stimulate ACTH secretion,
promote glycogen to glycogen-phosphate conversion in liver,
facilitate memory consolidation and retrieval, and
(can all be caused by this hormone)
2003 Nobel prize in Chemistry
Peter Agre, JHs, aquaporins;
MacKinnon, Rockefeller, ion channels.
This part of the heart detects high blood pressure
heart atrial volume receptors
Central diabetes insipidus is caused by
An AVP deficiency
Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus include
Frequent urination, inability to produce concentrated urine, and excessive thirst
Polyuria is defined as
Frequent urination
Genetic defects in AVP or a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary complex would result in
Central diabetes insipidus
Treatment for central diabetes insipidus
A specific VR2 agonist, longer half-life of AVP, more-potent-than-natural AVP supplement
Peripheral diabetes insipidus is caused by
Hyporesponsivness of the kidney to AVP
Genetic defects of the AVP receptor or injury to the kidneys can result in
diabetes isipidus
Symptoms of peripheral diabetes insipidus
Frequent urination, inability to produce concentrated urine, and excessive thirst
Treatment for peripheral diabetes insipidus
give antidiuretic drug chlorpropamide (sulphylourea) which increases
kidney tubule sensitivity to AVP.
Also called sulphylourea, increases kidney tubule sensitivity to AVP.
How to treat missing or defective hormones
(what and how)
Administer supplements; orally if small, injection if large
(in the case of)
How to treat missing or defective hormone receptor
Gene therapy, supplement with downstream molecules.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
Excess ADH as seen in SIADH leads to
Water retention, from mild to severe (convulsions, coma, death)
(can be seen because of excess of ADH ins what disease)
Treatment for excessive ADH
Control water intake,
Decrease central AVP release (e.g. Naloxone),
Block AVP action on the kidney (e.g. Demeclocycline)
Decreases central AVP release
Blocks AVP action in the kidney
Potential causes of ADH excess (SIADH) include
anesthetics; drugs (nicotine, narcotics); some tumors secrete ADH-like substances
Two drugs that can increase ADH release are
Nicotine and narcotics
Corticotropes generate
TSH (is generated by these cells)
Thyrotropes (generate this hormone)
LH and FSH are generated by
GH is generated by
Prolactin is generated by
The five cell populations of the anterior pituitary
Gonadotropes, Corticotropes, Thyrotropes, Lactotropes, and Somatropes
A 191 aa hormone
Growth hormone
A 198 aa hormone
Length of adrenocorticotrophic hormone
39 aas
Regulates lactation
Growth hormone regulates this
Linear growth
Function of ACTH
Regulate adrenal function
This hormone regulates the thyroid
Function of LH
Regulates corpus luteum formation,
estrogen / progesterone secretion, and
androgen secretion
Function of FSH
Regulates ovarian follicle growth and spermatogenesis
Name the 5 anterior pituitary trophic hormones
The three members of the GH / PRL superfamily
GH, PRL, and chorionic somatotrophin (CS)
Mechanism by which GH, PRL, and CS came about
Gene duplication of GH.
(name) the two systems that control the organs
(function of) endocrine and nervous systems
Unlike ponds, endo glands are
non-classical endo organs (8)
GI tract, uterus, brain, skin, heart, liver, kidneys, adipose tissue
what is the criteria for being a "non-classical" endo organ?
primary function is not endocrine in nature.
Features of endocrine glands (3)
ductless, well vascularized, small
Characteristics of an hormone (3)
Produced in small amounts,
released into blood stream,
transported to a distant organ to exert some action.
Tropic hormones target
endo organs
non-tropic hormones target
non endo organs / tissues.
This hormone is both tropic and nontropic
Growth hormone
Two classes of hormones that can come from a single amino acid
Amines, thyroid hormones (tyrosine)
Prostaglandins are hormones of which class?
Arachadonic acid derivatives
Prohormone has
an amino terminus sequence that gets cleaved off for activation
(has a cleavage site where)
internal cleavage site
(is posessed by this type of peptide hormone precursor)
Preprohormones and prohormones
(apply to what 2 classes of hormones)
Peptide / protein hormones
(have what two entities as precursors)
Peptide / protein hormones obtain secondary structure where in the cell?
As it proceeds from the ER to the golgi.
Tyrosine and cholesterol are needed for production of which classes of proteins?
thyroids and steroids
Amine and protein transport method
Free floating in blood (classes of hormones)
Steroid and thyroid '''transport''' method
Bound to proteins in the blood stream (are these two classes of hormones)
General carrier proteins, found in the blood
albumins, prealbumins
(function and location)
Class of specific carrier proteins found in the blood.
Globulins (function and location)
a globulin in the blood
Three example globulins in the blood
TBG, CBG, TeBG (the superfamily to which these belong)
(function and location)
a globulin in the blood
a globulin in the blood
IGF method of transport
Protein-bound, even though they are insoluble and wouldn't necessarily need it.
These two organs do most of the hormone clearing
Kidney and liver (their primary function regarding hormones)
Percentage of hormones that get excreted in functional form
<1% (what does this percentage represent regarding hormones)
With bound hormones, what slows clearance?
The higher the affinity, the slower the...
(This is) inversely proportional to the MCR
The half-life of an hormone (is defined as)
Four ways hormones can be used for regulation in the body
Growth and development,
Maintenance of internal environment,
Regulation of energy balance
(5) hormones that can control lypolysis
(can all control what cellular process)
(4 hormones needed for) mammary gland development
(are all required for what)
a simple endocrine system
A small amount of hormone secreted for a short period of time
(constitutes what kind of endocrine control system?)
(describe) the negative feedback system of TSH
anterior pit -> TSH -> thyroid -> T3 and T4 -> pit -| TSH
(this is an example of what kind of endocrine control system)
(describe) the positive feedback system related to breast-feeding
suckling at nipple -> neuro signal -> posterior pit -> oxytocin -> increased sensitivity at nipple
(this is an example of what type of endocrine control system)
(Name the)
two mechanisms that control the amount of hormone released
Mode of release and feedback
(ultimately determine)
(name the three categories of) endocrine diseases
Deficiencies, excess, resistance (are three ways to generate)
(define) hormone resistance
when the reaction to an hormone is not normal
affinity (determines)
specificity (is determined by)
Full physiological response to an hormone generally occurs before
all receptors are bound with hormone
(define) agonist
horomones or analogs that bind and elicit the same biological response
(define) partial agonist
same as agonist, but are less active than native hormone
competitive antagnoist
competes with hormone for receptor, thus stopping normal response
partial antagonist
binds to receptor but doesn't completely stop biological response
(3 hormones that all bind to)
tyrosine kinase receptors
(all bind to these kinds of receptors)
(This kind of receptor has)
multiple subunits that come together to bind the hormone
Cytokine receptor superfamily
(unique mechanism of this receptor class)
Cytokine receptors (require this subunit to bind for kinase activity)
(give which receptor kinase activity)
(stands for)
Signal transducer and transcription factor
(associated acronym)
The Classical endocrine organs (are, 7)
(are all what type of endo organs)
"Very low concentration" (molarity range)
10-7 to 10-12
(is considered)
Tropic hormones
(are associated with what type of endocrine pathway)
Complex neuroendocrine pathways
(generally utilize what type of hormones)
Nontrophic hormones (are associated with what type of endocrine pathway)
Simple neuroendocrine pathways (generally utilize what type of hormones)
(is what derived from)
(name one example of an hormone derived from)
Thyroid hormones
(are derived from)
(name two hormones generated from)
two iodinated tyrosine amino acids
(number of aas in)
(is made of)
(amino acids)
(Parental hormonal class of)
(Give one example of an hormone that is a)
(name the two subunits of)
alpha-GSU and TSH-beta
(form to generate)
cryptic peptide
a peptide sequence that may not have a known biological activity
(is called a)
the region of aa between two biologically active peptides
(is called a)
(this is still occurring during the removal of the)
signal peptide sequence
(is still occurring when this is being removed)
(location of)
peptide signal removal
endoplasmic reticulum
(is the location of)
(may be stored in / released via)
(can be used to store / release)
(Min and max of)
hormone release frequency
every 5 minutes to once each year
(is the range of)
Albumins and prealbumins
(generally carry)
nonspecific, smaller molecules
(are generally carried by)
GH travels
(bound or unbound)
Bound, even though it is a protein.
(name a protein hormone that travels in the blood bound)
(Half-life of an)
(is how long this class of hormones lasts in the blood)
(half-life, in a range of time, of a)
peptide hormone
minutes to hours
(is how long this class of hormones lasts in the blood)
(half life of)
thyroid hormones
approximately 1 day
(is how long these hormones last in the blood)
Prolactin is continually blocked by dopamine from the hypothalamus
(which is an example of what type of control)
Inhibitory control
(is exemplified by)
(name the three factors that affect)
the hormone response
Hormone concentration, receptor concentration, hormone-receptor affinity
(are the three things that affect)
Hypothalamic magnocellular system
(is also called the)
Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
(make up the)
(precursor of)
oxytocin and neurophysin 1
(is cleaved to generate)
(regulates levels of)
plasma osmolality
(regulates release of which hormone)
(are found where)
(contains these receptors)
(is processed into)
AVP, neurophysin 2, and a glycoprotein (maybe)
(all come from the processing of)
Prepro-pressophysin and prepro-oxyphysin
(are processed when)
as they pass from the magnocellular system of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
(these are processed)
(is a receptor for)
(is bound by this receptor in all tissues except the kidney)
(has 3 advantages over natural AVP for diabetes insipidus patients)
Targets a specific V2 receptor,
Longer half life,
More potent
(these are the advantages of this drug over AVP)
(is a synonym for)
(is a synonym for)
increased kidney tubule sensitivity to AVP
(can be generated by administration of)
large endo molecules
(are likely to be administered via)
injection delivery
(is likely to be used for these endo molecules)
small endo molecules
(are likely to be administered via)
oral delivery
(is likely to be used for these endo molecules)
(causes of)
anesthetics, drugs, tumors that secrete ADH-like substances
(can all cause)
syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion