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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where do you find collagen dispersed as a gel
in the vitreous humor of the eye
a typical collagen molecule consists of a triple-stranded helix composed of 3 ___________
alpha-chains, each one about 1000 amino acids long
collagen is (soluble/insoluble)
collagen is insoluble

thats why it has to be formed as soluble precollagen inside the cell, so it can get out
3 cell types that can produce collagen


the 3 main amino acids of collagen
glycine, proline and lysine
collagen has which amino acid every third position
glycine, they're super small
which amino acid of collagen forms the kinks that facilitate winding of the alpha chains
proline, its awkward and kinky
the alpha chains that will be collagen are extruded into the endoplasmic reticulum where proline and lysine residues are selectively hydroxylated

at this stage where and why are disulfide bonds formed
in the procollagen molecule disulfide bonds are formed at the N and C terminal ends to lock up the structure like a tight rope
how many genes code for collagen


the combination of the protein chains generates the different types of collagen
selected proline and lysine residues of the alpha-collagen chains are hydroxylated

what will you call the enzymes that do this
prolyl hydroxylase

lysyl hydroxylase

of course, they require molecular oxygen and vitamin C
of what use are hydroxyproline residues to collagen
hydroxyproline residues stabilize the chain structure by maximizing interchain H-bonding between the 3 alpha chains
of what use are hydroxylysine residues to collagen
hydroxylysine residues may be glycosylated

more importantly, they are involved in crosslinking BETWEEN collagen MOLECULES in the ECM, resulting in tensile strength
in collagen, hydroxylysine covalently links with allysine

what is allysine?
allysine is a lysine residue that has been deaminated, it has an aldehyde group out there instead, which is where the name comes from

enzyme: lysyl oxidase
what do you call the syndrome resulting from a mutation in the pro-alpha chains
Ehelers-Danlos Syndromes

over 20 different genetic defects related to hypermobility of joints, hyperextensibility of the skin, fragility of the skin

problems with enzymes like
prolyl hydroxylase
lysyl hydroxylase
lysyl oxidase
where is procollagen cleaved to collagen
in the ECM

becomes insoluble in the process
what 3 disorders may be associated with a blue sclera
osteogenesis imperfecta

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

Marfan's Syndrome
there's 8 types of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

which number is the worst, which one is the mildest
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

1 is the mildest

2 is the most severe

4 is the most common
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type I
Type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta Tarda

long bone fractures, often early in infancy, becoming less likely in adulthood

blue sclera

normal height, predisposition to hearing loss
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type II
Type II Osteogenesis Imperfecta Congenita

death in utero due to respiratory problems
does lysyl oxidase convert those lysine residues to allysine intra- or extra- cellularly
the cross links of elastin
tropoelastin is secreted into the extracellular space where it interacts with-
fibrillin, the elastic fiber scaffold
one third of amino residues in elastic fibers are ________

little, little glycine
elastic fibers have none of these modified residues
elastic fibers have

NO HYDROXYPROLINE or HYDROXYLYSINE because its elastic, you want some areas to repel each other

rich in proline and lysine, though
how do elastin chains link to the Desmosine crossbridge
elastin chains use

3 allysine residues and 1 lysine residue to link FOUR elastin chains

makes elastin yellow
what can a deficiency of lysyl oxidase result in
what is the cofactor for lysyl oxidase