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50 Cards in this Set

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Describe the term Chemoheterotrophs

Describes humans that use energy from chemicals produced by other organisms such as plants and animals

1) we store energy in reduced molecules such as carbs and fats, which are oxidized into CO2 and ATP

2) ATP energizes the reactions in cells

What do Oxidation and Reduction do ?


-Attaching oxygen/attaching bonds to it

-remove hydrogen

-remove electrons


-Removing oxygen/removing bonds to it

-adding hydrogen

-adding electrons

Oxidation or Reduction Questions

1) CH3CH3 --> H2C=Ch2

2) Fe3+ --> Fe2+

3) O2 --> H2o

4) NAD+ ---> NADH

5) FADH2----> FAD

1) Oxidation: because H is removed

2) Reduction: electrons are added

3) Reduction: reduction of O2 bonds and addition of H bonds

4) Redox adding H+

5) Ox: removing H+

Catabolism vs. Anabolism

Catabolism: process of breaking down molecules

Anabolism: building up a metabolism

What does Oxidative Catabolism do and describe the cycles we must go through

How we extract energy from glucose

1) Glycolosis

2) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC)

3) Krebs Cycle (TCA) (Citric Acid)

4) ETC/Oxidative Phosphorylation

Glucose Oxidation Stoichiometry

Oxidation of Glucose

C6H12O6+6O2--> 6CO2 + 6 H2O+ATP

-Carbons of glucose are oxidized to CO2

-Oxygens are reduced to H2O

Glucose-ATP Coupling

making the unfavorable synthesis of ATP occur with the coupling of the favorable oxidation of glucose

Glycolosis Major Steps and Enzymes before splitting into two molecules

1) Glucose - 1 ATP, catalyzed by hexokinase to form +1 G6P and +1 ADP

2) G6P-->F6P

3) PFK catalyzes the conversion of F6P to F-1,6,bisP by transferring a Phosphate from ATP to the F6P (very favorable RXN/Hard to reverse "commited step"

Glycolosys Major Steps and Enzymes Beginning with F-1,6bisP splitting

1) 2 molecules of GDE-3-P -2 Pi and -2 NAD+ forms 2 molecules of 1,3 biphosphoglycerate and +2 NADH + 2H+

2) 2 molecules of 1,3-bP-Gate coupled with -2 ADP forms 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate and +2 atp

3) Pyruvate Kinase catalyzes 2 molecules of PEP -2ADP to form 2 pyruvates and +2ATP

Glycolosis Products

+4 ATP - 2ATP = +2ATP


+2 Pyruvate

Where do the products of glycolysis go

1) Aerobic (O2 presence) products go to the PDC and Krebs Cycle

2) Anaerobic (No O2) doesnt alllow ETC to function, so products go into Fermentation

Describe the basics of fermentation

No Oxygen: no ETC or Phosphorylation, No KREBS, NO PDC

Problems: end products are toxic (ethanol and lactate) and we only get 2 ATP

Uses pyruvate to coupled with Oxidation NADH to Regenerate ADP+

Examples of Fermentation

1) Ethanol

(Step 1) Pyruvate Coupled with H+ looses an oxygen and is Reduced to acetylaldehyde and excess CO2

(Step 2) Actetylaldehyde coupled with NADH is reduced to Ethanol and 1 NAD+

2) Lactate

(Step 1) Pyruvate coupled with NADH is reduced to Lactate and 1 NAD+

Krebs Cycle Step 1 & 2 Input and output

1) Input: 4 Carbon OAA + 2 molecules of 2 carbon Acetyl-CoA

Output: 6 carbon Citric Acid

2) Input: Citric Acid + CoA-SH + H+

Output: 6 carbon Isocitrate

Krebs Cycle Step 3 & 4 Input and Output

3) Input: Isocitrate and NAD+

Output: 2NADH and CO2 and a-ketoregulate

4) Input 5 carbon A-keto and NAD+

output: 2NADH and CO2 and a 4 carbon succinyl-CoA

Krebs Cycle Step 5, 6, 7, 8 Input and Output

5) Input: 4 carbon succinyl + GDP + Pi

Output: 2GTP and Succinate

6) Input: Succinate + FAD

Output: Fumurate and 2FADH2

7) Input Fumurate + h20

Output: malate

8) Input: Malate + NAD+

Output 2NADH and OAA

Krebs Products

6NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP per glucose

GTP and krebs cycle

GTP will eventually transfer its high energy phosphate bond to ADP converting it into ATP

Where does pyruvate go after Glycolosys

pyruvate that is produced in glycolysis in the cytosol is transported to the mitochondrial matrix for complete oxidation to CO2

Oxidative Decarboxylation

a molecule is oxidized to release co2 and NADH


1) 2 (3 Carbon) pyruvates coupled with NAD+ are oxidized, coupled with its cofactor coenzyme A producing 2 (2 carbon) molecules of Acetyl COA, giving off CO2 and creating 2NADH+H+

Mitochndria Major Components in Catabolism

Inner and outer membrane: each with a lipid bilayer

Cristae: folds on the inner membrane that extend into the matrix

Intermembrane space: contunous with cystoplasm

2 goals of ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylphoration

1) oxidize all electron carriers that were reduced during glycolosis, pdc, and krebs cycle

2) make usable energy in the form of ATP

Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Strucuture & Function


densley folded into structures called cristae where electron ETS electron carriers and ATP synthase are embedded

Outer mitochondrial membrane structure description

smooth with large pores formed by porin proteins

Mitochondrial location of reduced electron carriers

2 NADH from glycolosis are in the cytoplasm, electrons from NADH will have to be transported into the mitochondria before being passed to the ETC

All other NADH and FADH2 were produced in the matrix so there is no need to move electrons

Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Electron Carriers location and function

Prokaryotes: electron cariers are in the cytoplasm then are oxidatively phosphorylphorated via membrane bound ATP synthase

*no need to shuttle NADH netting two extra phosphate bonds

Eukaryotes: have to shuttle electrons from cytosilic NADH into the Matrix which costs energy

What effect would be the result of increasing concentrations of ATP on PFK actvity in glycolosis

In abundance, ATP should slow glycolosis because ATP allosterically inhibits PFK which ceases the production of ATP

Would a limiting supply of NAD+ stimulate or inhibit glycolosis

if all NAD+ is converted to NADH, then the step in glycolosis that uses NAD+ to create NADH would not occur inhibiting glycolosis

What happens to lactate in human muscle cells after prolonged strenuous exercise

Lactate is transported to the liver from the muscle cells

When O2 becomes available the liver converts it into pyruvate while making NADH from NAD+

1) Excess NADH can be used to make ATP in oxidative phosphlyphoration

2) Pyruvate can enter gluconeogenesis or the krebs cycle in the liver

What effect would you predict if a high level of AMP is added to the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex ?

A high ratio of AMP to ADP ---> ATP is a low energy charge. A low energy charge will stimulate the PDC increasing the rate of entry of pyruvate into the KREBS cycle

Name PDC Complex enzymes & their prosthetic groups (Coenzymes) and describe their formation

Enzymes bundle together to make a complex

E1: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase + TPP

E2: Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase + Lipoamide

E3: Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase + FAD


derivative of riboflavin vitaimin B2 and is a prostheitc group coenzyme in the PDC Cycle

Thiamine Pyrophosphate

derived from thiamine vitamin B1 and is a coenzyme in the PDC

ATP synthase

multi subunit enzyme that makes ATP (imbedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane)

Coenzyme A

large thiol group derived from ATP and the vitamin pantothenic acid

it accepts acetyl groups which are bonded to it through a high energy thiester bond

BeriBeri disease is caused by thiamine defieciency, frequently results from a diet of white rice in undeveloped nations. Which would best describe the effects of thiamine deffieciency on cellular metabolism in humans

prosthetic groups such as TPP in the PDC Cycle require thiamine & the krebs cylce. They are bound to enzymes as a part of the active site, thus PDC and the Krebs would shut down due to the lack of production of NADH and FADH2. Lack of NADH & FADH2 would reduce production of ATP in ETC. In order to compensate only Anaerobic ATP production via glycolosis would occur

How many chiral carbons are present in citrate in the Krebs Cycle

none, since none of the 6 carbons have 4 unique substituents

If pyruvate is radiolabeled on it #1 carbon (the most oxidized carbon, where will the labeled carbon end up in the krebs cycle

in CO2

How many carbons from the COA component of acetyl COA enter the krebs cycle?

none= CoA assists in catalysis meaning that is isnt consumed in the reaction but regenerated at the end of the cycle as CoA-SH

Oxidative Phsophorylation Process

The oxidation of the high energy carriers NADH and FADH2 coupled to Synthesis of ATP which uses the oxidated protons in the ETC from NADH and FADH to produce atp from ADP and Pi

Proton Gradient Oxidative Phosphorylation

when NADH and FADH2 are oxidized it gives the enzyme energy to pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space where they are used for ATP production

Name the ETC Enzymes and Coenzymes and describe them

1) NADH Hydrogenase (Large reducer of NADH)

2) Ubiquinone "coenzyme q" small reducer of FADH2

3) Coenzyme C reductase (Large)

4) Cyctochrome C (small hydrophillic protein bound loosely to the inner membrane

5) Cytochrome Oxidase (Reduces O2 to H2O)

ETC Steps

1) NADH Dehydrogenase receives electron reducing power from incoming NADH, it reduces NADH to NAD+

2) Electrons are passed to Coenzyme q which reduces FADH2 to FAD

3) Electrons passed to coenzyme c reductase

4) Electrons are passed to cytochrome c

5) electrons passed to cytochrome C oxidase which reduces co2 into h20

6) ATP Synthesis

Krebs Cycle Image

PDC Image

Lactate Fermentation Image

Glycolysis Location and basics

Enzymes in the Cytosol of mitochondria, does not need o2

PDC/KREBS location and basics

Mito Matrix, require oxygen

ETC/Oxidative Phosphorylation Location and basics ?

Inner mito matrix and require o2