Three Stages Of Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration takes place on the level of the cell, inside the mitochondria. This is the process of breaking down food in the presence of oxygen to form ATP. ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate which is an energy bearing molecule found in all living cells1. Things such as bacteria can perform this with their outer membranes. When a person runs, they use cellular respiration to create energy in the form of ATP which allows their muscles to move. Many other energy-consuming reactions of metabolism are done using the energy from ATP molecules1. There are two types of respiration: aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is respiration in the presence of oxygen and anaerobic respiration is respiration in the absence …show more content…
Heterotrophs take organic compounds and break them down in the presence of oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide while also generating ATP. Autotrophs, which are organisms that survive on their own food3, convert this carbon dioxide and water produced back into organic compounds. Autotrophs can also break down the organic compounds to make carbon dioxide and water. There are three steps in cellular respiration: glycolysis, kerb cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis breaks down a molecule of glucose which has six carbon, down into two molecules of pyruvate which have three carbon in them. This will generate two ATP for one glucose molecule. Glycolysis also creates a chemical called NADH. The pyruvate will diffuse into the mitochondria which will make pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This converts the pyruvate molecules into acetyl CoA which is Coenzyme A which is a two carbon molecule. Since a three carbon molecule goes to a two carbon molecule, this means carbon is given off, which is given off in the form of carbon …show more content…
Each amino acid will have different chemical properties. Polar amino acids such as threonine are hydrophilic which means they will attract water while non-polar ones such as alanine will repel water. Amino acids such as aspartic acid have a negative charge and ones such as lysine will have a positive charge, meaning if they are in the same polypeptide they will try to get next to each other. This will form a three dimensional protein. There are four levels of structure to a protein: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary is the order that the amino acids are bonded together. Secondary structures are alpha helix and beta plated sheets. Beta plated sheets are two sides that are attached to each other and an alpha helix curls. Hydrogen bonding occurs between the adjacent sides of the polypeptide. Next is the tertiary structure which has all of the variable groups, R, interacting such as the hydrophilic or hydrophobic amino acids. Quaternary is proteins together with other

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